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GEOLOGIC Column is wrong (part 2)

WorldWar1812

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Part 1: GEOLOGIC Column is wrong
Part 3: GEOLOGIC Column is wrong
Part 4: GEOLOGIC Column is wrong
Part 5: GEOLOGIC Column is wrong

NOT "MILLIONS OF YEARS" AND NOT "MILLIONS OF Light-Years".


Nature programs often tell about processes over millions of years. However, several facts are against millions of years

The study of evolution does not always rely heavily upon evidence; important conclusions are sometimes based upon very limited data. We can look at the study of human fossils for an illustration of this point. Consider the conclusions that were drawn from studies of the Heidelberg Man and the Nebraska Man.


- The Heidelberg Man, who should be a Homo Erectus, was “created” and “built” based on one jawbone only, i.e., a theory of the whole human race was produced on the grounds of one piece of bone, although many thought that this jawbone resembled that of a modern man!

- The Nebraska Man was used as a “convincing” piece of evidence of the evolution of man in the famous so-called ape trial in the 1920s. It was “created” based on one tooth. Several double page pictures about this man and his life were published in order to leave no doubt as to how he had lived and from whence he came. The only unfortunate thing was that when this so-called evidence was examined later, it was found that the tooth of Nebraska Man belonged to an extinct pig and not to a man at all!

Let’s consider another excerpt. The text helps us see that people sometimes use limited data to support major conclusions and describe the past. An average person might only ask how such data was obtained. When such a person looks at ground soil or fossils, he or she cannot deduce anything about what happened 430 million or 65 million years ago, or what the climate was like back then. Yet, many scientists claim they know what happened; they believe that they know exactly what happened based on the very limited data they have gathered.

The Permian age was the last of the Palaeozoic era. At that time, the continents were combined into a single super continent called Pangaea. The climate was dry and cold in the beginning of this era but started to warm midway through the period. Drought was overwhelming, particularly in the middle parts of the continent. Early reptilians became more common on ground. Corals and Bryozoans flourished in the low seas. Trilobites started to disappear from the oceans around this time. On land, ferns made room for conifers. Cycads and ginkgo became more common. (1)


We will study the basic teachings of evolution in this writing. The plan is to find out whether the processes on the earth have been fast or slow. Did these processes take millions of years, or thousands, or decades, or even days? Let’s start with mineral coal.

Mammoths and the Carboniferous period. Mammoths were elephant-like large animals that are commonly thought to have become extinct around 10,000 years ago. Many traces of mammoths can still be found in the permafrost of Siberia, etc. The bones have been used as a raw material in the ivory industry.
This chapter is about what mammoths have to do with mineral coal and oil. The quotes below are about how traces of these large animals have been found in the middle of mineral coal and oil deposits and also buried in amber.
These findings are important because it has been thought that mammoths lived on the earth only a couple of thousand years ago but mineral coal, oil and amber are usually dated as dozens or hundreds of millions of years old. One can ask: how are such findings possible? How can there be mammoths in layers that are commonly thought to be ancient? Why are such findings made? There is a clear contradiction. Such findings should be impossible.
Or, could it be that the development of mineral coal, oil and amber are fairly recent, and that no long-term processes were needed for creation of these materials? This is the most reasonable conclusion one can draw based on the findings available.
Another, even more interesting fact suggesting that carbon, oil and amber are not ancient is the fact that the remains of humans (!) have been found in the same strata, as have a huge number of vertebrate and invertebrate remains. One such finding was in California:

Mammoth remains are far from rare. Over the centuries, such remains have been found on four continents in a variety of locations: in the frozen plains of Siberia and Alaska, the tar pits of Los Angeles, the bottom sediment of the North Sea, gravel pits, caves and mineral coal mines. The condition of the remains has been highly varied – some have been almost complete individuals with even their fur, hide, meat, blood and internal organs intact whereas others have been mere pieces of teeth and bones.
(...) Mammoth remains have also been found in California, in the middle of the current Los Angeles downtown area. The famous tar pits of Rancho la Brea are located on a cross street of Wilshire Boulevard (brea is Spanish for tar). The tar pits have been known for centuries, and they were previously used to get natural asphalt. Thousands of tonnes of the asphalt were raised from the pits until it was found in 1875 that there were fossils buried in the tar.
More than a hundred tonnes of fossils have been obtained after that time: 1.5 million of vertebrates and 2.5 million of invertebrates. In many cases, the individual animals have been mixed into a single compact mass. Insects, birds and giant land-living sloths have been found there. A total of 17 elephant-like animals – mastodons and Columbian mammoths – have been found. Most of these were found in pit no. 9 that was dug in 1914. It is the deepest stratum containing bones. Most of the fossils are between the ages of 40,000 and 10,000 years but the only humanoid finding – a female – is around 9,000 years old.
(...) No intact soft tissue has been found at La Brea. Soft tissues have been retained intact under some conditions inside raw oil, however. The ground in Starunia in Western Ukraine is full of kerosene veins. The area is known particularly for its rhino findings but a mammoth was also found in 1907 at a depth of 43 metres. The body had partially decayed before the tissue became embalmed but the mammoth was still “flesh and blood”. It had been preserved in oil surrounded by amber like a sardine in a can. The skeleton was in good condition and the skin was still flexible but the hairs had stuck to the ground surrounding the mammoth. It is the only mammoth found outside the permafrost zone with intact soft tissue. (2)


Dinosaurs and the Carboniferous period. Dinosaurs were large animals, just like the mammoths. The consensus is that they lived a couple of hundred million years after the Carboniferous period and became extinct around 65 million years ago. It is not considered possible that dinosaurs lived on earth at the same time as mammoths; they are thought to have roamed the earth millions of years before mammoths.
Still, findings similar to the mammoth findings have been made in the case of dinosaurs. The condition of the fossils is often just as good as that of the mammoth fossils, and traces of blood cells, intact soft tissue, non-petrified bone and skin have been found. It is not believed that blood cells could be retained for a period of 50,000 years and yet such findings have been made.
The next quote is about the connection between dinosaurs and carbon. Remains of mammoths and humans have also been found in carbon strata. Such findings prove that the geological time scale cannot be accurate.

A very peculiar place to find footprints of ancient giant animals is a carbon mine. Footprints of dinosaurs have been found on the ceilings of carbon mines in Utah and Colorado. How could the dinosaurs have walked on the inner ceiling of a mine?
Let’s take a torch and go into one such mine to see!
The tunnels in the mountain were naturally made when mineral coal was being excavated. There are mineral coal layers several metres thick. The miners excavated mineral coal from this layer. They sometimes dug several kilometres into the mountain. There is sandstone on top of the mineral coal that becomes the ceiling of the tunnel when the mineral coal is removed. (...) When the mineral coal that contains traces of plants was removed from the mine, the giant footprints appeared. (3)

Does it take a long time for carbon to be formed? The consensus on the creation of mineral coal is that it takes a process of millions of years. People think that thick layers of peat were accumulated over millions of years and the peat slowly started to change into mineral coal because of the pressure. People believe this theory even though nothing similar has been observed in the modern world. Thus, they consider mineral coal and oil to be non-renewable natural resources. Such materials have not been observed to form even in a tropical climate even though the conditions there should be favorable. We find quite the opposite: plants rot quickly in such places, and no mineral coal or oil is generated.
Mineral coal need not have taken a long time to form. One piece of evidence that supports this is that wood and other materials rich in cellulose have been changed into mineral coal or a substance reminiscent of mineral coal in a matter of hours. This strongly suggests that if the conditions are right, such materials can be formed very quickly. It does not require millions of years. Only our own pro-evolution prejudice blinds us from seeing that development did not require millions of years. The following example suggests that mineral coal can be formed in a short period of time, in only a couple of weeks. The author proves that such events could have occurred quickly, in connection with the Flood.



Scientists in the Argonne National Laboratory (in the US) have proven that top-class black carbon can be obtained utilising the following method: take some lignin (an essential ingredient in wood) and mix it with some acidic clay and water. Heat the mixture in an oxygen-free closed quartz container at 150 ºC without increasing the pressure. This is not a high temperature from the geological viewpoint – actually, there is nothing exceptional or “unnatural” about the ingredients, either. Neither does the process take millions of years – it only takes 4–36 weeks!

(...) Famous Australian geologist Sir Edgeworth David described in his report of 1,907 still-standing charred tree trunks that were found in between layers of black carbon in Newcastle (Australia). The bottom parts of the trunks had been buried deep into the carbon stratum, and then the trunks went right through the strata above, finally ending up in the carbon stratum on top!

To think that people try to explain these issues with slow processes taking place in two separate swamps, interspersed by long periods of time. It is clear that the prejudice of “slow, gradual development” has prevented the more obvious explanation of the origin of the carbon, i.e., a huge mass of water caused by an act of God quickly buried the uprooted trees.

Moving water can quickly cause major geological changes – particularly if there is lots of water. Most people think that such changes must occur over a period of millions of years. (…)

Some geologists (including many of those who believe in the processes of “millions of years”) now say that the Grand Canyon was formed in the same manner – in a catastrophe – instead of being formed over a period of millions of years because of erosion caused by the Colorado River.

The Flood lasted for one year, covered mountains, caused global upheaval and rent the earth when water (and inevitably also magma) gushed up for months (”the fountains of the great deep broken up”, Gen 7:11). Such a frightening catastrophe would cause an incredible amount of geological changes. (4)


Another fact suggesting that mineral coal was generated quickly rather than slowly over millions of years is that fossilized trees found inside mineral coal deposits transecting several strata. An old photograph of a mineral coal quarry in Saint-Etienne, France, shows five tree trunks, each crossing about ten strata. Such fossils could not exist if the mineral coal strata were formed over millions of years.
The quote below addresses this point. It supports the statement that the formation of mineral coal strata cannot be the result of a slow change from peat into mineral coal. The layers must have been formed quickly, because in them are found a mixture of fossilised tree trunks, and fossils of animals and plants. Such findings can only be explained by assuming that they were buried quickly, and at the same time.

The mineral coal strata consist of large heaps with all surface plants from peat to large trees all mixed up. There are also traces of all kinds of life forms from water animals to birds and from reptilians to mammals in the mix. All of these are mixed up, willy-nilly. Large petrified trees are often found as large heaps with their roots pointing up or entangled. Thick trunks that have remained in an upright position pierce through dozens of meters of soil, indicating how quickly everything has happened. The strata cannot be a result of slow formation of peat, as the supporters of evolution claim. (5)

Water and the generation of mineral coal. Most scientists admit that water plays a part in the generation of mineral coal. This was also stated in the earlier description of the human manufacture of mineral coal from materials including wood, acid-rich clay and water. This process only took 4- to 36 weeks. In the same way, we find references in textbooks that state that formation of mineral coal occurred when forests were buried in water and silt. It is believed that this took place during the so-called “Carbon era” or the Carboniferous period, millions of years ago.

When forests were for some reason buried in silt, mineral coal strata were generated. Our current machine culture is partially based on these strata. (Mattila Rauno, Teuvo Nyberg & Olavi Vestelin, Koulun biologia 9, p. 91)



The most significant mineral carbon deposits of the Earth were formed approximately 300 million years ago. This time is called the Carboniferous period. During this period, the climate was warm and damp. Vegetation was more luxuriant than ever in history, at least in low swamp areas. It is assumed that the atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than nowadays. Treelike ferns, horsetails, and club mosses grew into forests. Mineral coal was formed when these forests – as the climate sometimes became warmer and the ice sheets melted – were buried by water and silt. (Koulun biologia, lukiokurssi 2-3, 1987, Tast – Tyrväinen – Mattila – Nyberg, p. 176, 177)


The next quotes make the same point. They support the statement that we find fossils from the sea mixed into layers of mineral coal and that these layers were stacked on top of each other by the force of water. The existence of marine fossils and fish in the strata proves that such strata could not have formed slowly in a specific marshland. A better explanation is that water carried the plants to the places where mineral coal was generated. Water uprooted the plants and trees, piled them up into large heaps and also introduced marine animals with the land-living plants. Such an occurrence could only have been a major crisis, such as the Flood.

“Under and above the mineral coal seams there are, as has been said, regular layers of clay stone, and from their structure we can see that they have been stratified from water."(6)

The evidence overwhelmingly suggests that mineral coal was generated quickly when large forests were destroyed, layered and then quickly buried. There are huge lignite strata in Yallourn, Victoria (Australia) that contain plenty of pine tree trunks – trees that do not currently grow on marsh land.
The sorted, thick strata that contain up to 50% of pure pollen and that are spread over a huge area clearly prove that the lignite strata were formed by water. (7)

Children are taught at school that mineral coal is slowly generated from peat even though such generation cannot be seen anywhere in the modern world. With evidence such as the extensive mineral coal fields, the different types of plants and the multilayered tree trunks in upright position, it seems that the mineral coal strata have been generated from huge drifting masses of plants during a very large flood. Plenty of burrows made by marine life forms can also be found inside these carbonized plant fossils. Fossils of marine animals have also been found in mineral coal strata (“A note on the Occurrence of Marine Animal Remains in a Lancashire Carbon Ball”, Geological Magazine, 118:307,1981) (...) Major strata of marine animal shells and fossils of the sea creature Spirorbis have also been found in the mineral coal strata. (Weir, J., ”Recent Studies of Shells of the Carbon Measures”, Science Progress, 38:445, 1950). (8)

Prof. Price presents cases where 50- to100 mineral coal layers are one top of each other and between them there are layers including fossils from deep sea. He deems this piece of evidence so strong and convincing that he has never tried to explain these facts on grounds of Lyell’s uniformity theory. (9)


What is the age of the mineral coal deposits? It has been assumed that the mineral coal deposits are at least 250- to 300 million years old. People believe that mineral coal was formed during the Carboniferous period when vegetation on the earth was much lusher. However, this belief is not supported by radiocarbon dating. Since the half life of radiocarbon is only around 5,730 years, there should be none of it left after 100,000 or 200,000 years. It is impossible.
Still, radiocarbon is often found in mineral coal, peat, crude oil and natural gas deposits and even in fossils of the Cambrian period (the Cambrian period is thought to have started 600 million years ago). This proves that the strata and fossils cannot be even 100,000 years old. R. Gentry came to the same conclusion when studying radio halos. The layers must be thousands of years old, not millions.

In the early years of the invention, it was believed that all the preconditions needed to make accurate age measurements were now present. Researchers gathered all kinds of things to measure: items from the tombs of pharaohs and Neanderthals, teeth of sabre-tooth tigers and mammoths, fossils, crude oil, etc. Radiocarbon was found in all of them. These observations regarding age were published in Radiocarbon magazine. Many of the samples had previously been dated as being millions of years old. (10)

The age of mineral coal strata has been estimated by examining radio halos, and there are signs suggesting that such strata are only a couple of thousand years old. (Gentry, R.V. et al., “Radio halos in Carbonified Wood”, Science, 194:315, 1976) (11)

R. Gentry studied the halos in the mineral coal from the Devonian and Jurassic periods. He found several halos generated by 210 Po and uranium. Gentry deduced based on the presence of the Po halos that uranium and its daughter isotopes (214 Po, 210 Po, etc.) ended up in the wood matter before becoming carbonised and the carbonisation took place quickly (in the course of less than 50 years). (...) Gentry has stated that the maximum age of the carbon in the Jurassic strata is 280,000 years. This is at least 270 times less than the age stated in the geological time scale. He considers the carbon in the Devonian strata to be at least a thousand times younger than the age noted in the geological time scale. If the Devonian strata are less than 330,000 years old, all the strata above them must be young.
Radioactive carbon (14 C) has been found in several fossils and in some mineral coal, peat, crude oil and natural gas deposits that are believed to be several thousand or several million years old. Their estimated age should be lowered to less than 50,000 years. (12)

Oil
is a similar non-renewable natural resource as mineral coal. Oil has not been observed being generated under any current conditions in any part of the world, not even in tropical areas where there is plenty of vegetation.
What about the speed at which oil is formed? Its formation need not have taken long, either. A piece of evidence supporting this comes from a modern laboratory: a barrel of oil was manufactured from one tonne of organic waste in only 20 minutes (Machine Design, 14 May 1970). It is a fast process. This ability to manufacture oil was mastered during WWII. Finnish geologist Pentti Eskola wrote decades ago about Germans manufacturing oil from mineral coal and lignite.

Oil can now be manufactured from mineral coal or lignite. Germany used this method during WWII and was very able to overcome the problem. (13)

What about the age of oil deposits? The high pressure in the soil strata places limitations on their age. If the deposits were millions of years old, their internal pressure would have dissipated ages ago. Yet, oil often gushes out of a hole in the ground. This demonstrates the presence of high pressure. This is why it has been assumed that oil deposits are at most 10,000 years old (chapters 12 and 13 in Prehistory and Earth Models by Melvin A. Cook, Max Parrish and Company, 1966). Another way we can see that oil deposits are not millions of years old but, instead, thousands of years is by measuring the radiocarbon found in them (see the quote above). The half life of radiocarbon is only 5,730 years; thus, all would be gone after 100,000 or 200,000 years.

Why is it that no new mineral coal strata or petrifactions are being generated? It is for the same reason that crude oil was generated and why it is no longer generated. Mineral coal, natural gas and crude oil deposits are not part of the renewable resources of our earth. The pressure inside the soil strata that causes the energy to rise up a drilled hole have been measured in natural gas and crude oil deposits. If the deposits were hundreds or millions of years old, there would be no pressure in the strata. This is a well-known fact among experts. (14)

FAST OR SLOW PROCESSES? We discussed the generation of mineral coal and oil above, and we noted that they may have been generated through fast processes only a couple of thousand years ago. The only reason we believe these processes took a long time is that we believe – and are prejudiced by – the geological time scale that measures development over millions of years. In fact, evidence strongly supports something else.
The formation of several other natural features previously thought to require long periods of time could actually have taken only a couple of decades, or even a couple of weeks/days. Below are some examples.

Glaciers. The consensus has been that the glaciers in Greenland and other parts of the world were generated over a period of hundreds of thousands years. This consensus was based on the assumption that layers of ice can be aged according to their layers of sediment, just as the age of trees can be measured by observing their growth rings. In glaciers, such sediment layers are called “varves”.
A better explanation for varves is that they were generated by changing weather conditions (such as changes in winter temperatures or snowfalls). The same phenomenon can be observed by anyone who sees the inside of snow banks that get dissected by snow ploughs. You can clearly see the stripes that show weather conditions changed. Over the course of one winter several such layers might form.

Several researchers of the field have lately questioned the assumption that the Ice Age varves were always annual. Some varves in Denmark have been interpreted to have formed during a single day, and the varves in many parts of Europe and America seem to be weather varves that were generated during a period that is clearly shorter than 12 months. It has been noted that the layers of the classical varve area in Sweden may not always be annual. This makes the time scale based on varves clearly shorter. (15)

We can also see in practice that the current climate in the arctic areas is not necessarily from ancient times. Airplanes that were left in Greenland during the Second World War have been covered with ice to a depth of 40 to 100 meters (43 to 107 yards) in less than 60 years. This means almost 1 to 2 meters (1 to 2 yards) per year. Also, a 17-meter antenna in the Antarctic has been covered with ice over a period of 30 years, which is quite fast.
As far as the current levels of rainfall are concerned, they are enough to explain the formation of an ice field in quite a short time. Greenland gets around 400 mm (15.7 inch) of rain per year, which will be even more when it turns into snow, even if part of it were to melt. The current rainfall is enough to create an ice field in a very short time, not over the course of hundreds of thousands of years.

American Fighters Defrosted in Greenland

Aviator-journalist Dieter Herrmann of Berlin is planning to thaw five rare P-38 Lightning fighter planes from the depths of the eternal ice cover over Greenland. If everything goes as Mr. Herrmann plans, these historical war fighters will be lifted up next summer by an international expedition consisting of more than 300 people.
The American fighters desired by the expedition have been buried in eastern Greenland near Tasiilaq since 1942. Nowadays, these planes that were lost by the Allied forces during the war are covered by almost one hundred meters of eternal snow and ice.
(…) In practice, the expedition will be able to reach the American planes inside the glacier by thawing a 100-meter vertical shaft in the snow and ice cover.
(…) The Americans already used the thawing method to lift one fighter up in 1992. At that time, the plane was under an ice layer 80 meters thick. Now the P-38 in question has been restored and is used in aviation shows all around the world under the name Glacier Girl.(Newspaper Etelä-Suomen Sanomat, 14 January 2007)


Petrifaction. Petrified (fossilised) wood and other petrifactions can be found all over the world. They are generally considered to be several millions of years old, and it is assumed that it has taken a long time for them to come into being.
This idea is easy to question, however. It has been general knowledge for a long time that petrifactions can happen during a short period of time. For example, there is a petrified hat in a mining museum in New Zealand. Other man-made objects that have been petrified under suitable conditions have also been found.
Petrifactions can also be artificially generated. Petrified wood can be manufactured in a couple of days using a solution containing silicon compounds at 80°C (Tieteen kuvalehti 4/93, p. 19). This proves that petrifaction does not take a long period of time.

That is why tourists, coming across the ‘petrified waterwheel’ in Western Australia gawk in amazement. ‘It only took sixty years to cover this thing in solid rock?’ Sixty years, with water carrying dissolved limestone dripping night and day onto an object, is actually an incredibly long time. It is our culture, soaked in the myth of ‘deep time’, that has indoctrinated us into the belief that a million years (an unimaginable time period, in reality) is only like ‘yesterday’. (16)

Wood can be petrified in a short period of time. Researchers sank a freshly felled log into a hot well containing plenty of minerals in Yellowstone Park. The tree was partially petrified in the course of a single year. This proves that quartz layers rich in minerals that are caused by a volcanic eruption can petrify buried trees in a very short time. Petrified wood is now industrially produced using a very fast process. It does not take millions of years. (17)

Many other specialities in nature are also such that do not take a long time even though people have thought so. Here are some examples:

- Stalactites can be generated in a couple of decades. There is a mine in northwest Queensland, Australia, with long stalactites. The mine was not opened until the 1920s so the stalactites must have been formed after that. It did not take a long time. (18)

- Opals are excavated from the ground. They are assumed to be tens of millions of years old and it is believed that it took a long time for them to be created. However, people have been able to grow opals at home in a matter of months. It does not take thousands or millions of years, or even pressure and heat. Grown opals cannot be distinguished from those excavated from the ground, not even with an electron microscope. (19)

- Diamonds have been thought to be millions of years old but a laboratory of high repute has dated diamonds (using the C-14) method at 58,000 years. (20)
 

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