SH Archive Tartary in Jefferson's Library

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Matthias
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Hi all, first post here. I've been following the mud flood and Tartary threads extensively over the last couple of weeks and familiarizing myself with the forum and many of the topics discussed here.

It seems like a lot about Tartary is pretty unknown, but as with anything old I like to go back and read books from the era in question to get a better picture. It tends to be far more accurate than modern sources anyway since the mainstream narrative doesn't get the chance to filter out any details.

Now it just so happens that I visited Monticello in the last couple weeks, and during the tour I was notified that a list of all of the books in Jefferson's collections that he gathered throughout his life were kept in a journal (or several) that can now be found online here through the Monticello website. Many of these titles are not in English, but English translations do exist. Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be a great transcript of these book titles, so you'll have to peruse the journal as a collection of images with no way to search.

Edit: Monticello has a transcription of all the journals here (click the chapter number to navigate)

It is organized however with Ancient History toward the front and "modern" history, philosophy, law, and sciences toward the back. Modern in this case means 18th century. I figured this may be a good source to look for old books about Europe, America, and Tartary at the time that many of the questions start to arise.

In addition to this 1789 journal, on that site or Monticello's site you can find his 1783 collection as well as a collection of his later in life (which may prove useful when looking into 1812).

I haven't gotten the chance to comb these collections too extensively, but I did spot one title that seemed interesting: Historia de la Conquista de la China por el Tartaro
Fortunately an English translation exists online: The History of the Conquest of China by the Tartars by Juan de Palafox

Most notably, this book has chapters not just on the conquest, but also on the Tartar people. Chapters 25-32 discuss their spiritualism, military strategies, clothing, affinity for the sciences, and political structure. To give a very brief synopsis of those chapters, they had no organized religion but believed in a single source or Creator. They did not care for churches or polytheistic deities of Europe. They did have a priest class, but they were not highly regarded. They preferred to live in tents during military conquests rather than settle in towns, but they did build Pagods (pagodas?) for religious purposes. Tartars were not big on scholarship or learning (unlike the Chinese they conquered), but still encouraged the Chinese to continue their own sciences. They had red or black hair but tended to shave their heads while maintaining bushy beards. Their women were free to walk or ride on horseback even at night unescorted, and were even allowed into military roles. Tartars were all expert horsemen and appeared to treat their horses in much the same way we would treat a family pet as part of the family. Also notably, the author says they were afraid of the sea/water likely because they grew up in the steppes, but that those who did decide to learn seafaring picked it up extremely quickly and were naturally gifted at it. I'm not sure what that might mean for a global Tartarian Empire, but it would suggest that they had little experience in seafaring prior to their conquest of China as the author suggests that's when they first discovered naval navigation. The author briefly mentions rumors that the Tartars were vicious warriors to the point of cannibalism, but he seemed to dismiss it as the Tartars did not seem the type to be savages, just very warlike and brutal in combat. Interestingly enough, in Chapter 14 he mentions that Tartary prepared to fight China In a naval battle, but "were not yet masters of the Sea". Could this be hinting that they soon would become "masters of the Sea"?

I'm not sure how reliable Mr. Palafox is, but I can only assume that if Jefferson acquired the books himself he no doubt read them and trusted their veracity. Anyway, I hope the Jefferson library and this book can help us better understand Tartary and world history up until the 1800s.
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Juan de Palafox y China
Written in the 1940s of the 17th century and, for the other, the bishop's participation in the so-called controversy of the rites of China, especially from of the letter written in 1649 to Pope Innocent X, in which he denounces the practices considered unorthodox evangelism used by Jesuit missionaries in East Asia.
A first part of this essay is dedicated to analyzing the book on the fall of the Ming dynasty in
1644, in the context of the information that then flowed to Europe, supported by the historiography that has cataloged various similar contemporary chronicles on the subject. The second part describes the subject of the book, the Manchu invasion of China and the perception of the historical crisis of
worldwide impact that undoubtedly impacted audiences around the world. Finally, the third part addresses Palafox's participation in the controversial issue of the evangelization of China by
part of the Jesuits in those same years, from the perspective of the statesman concerned about the
serious deterioration of the Spanish Empire of those fateful years; a power harassed from the outside and fragmented in its inner structure.
The appearance in Paris in 1670 of a book signed by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza on the Fall of the Ming dynasty in China, History of the conquest of China by Tartarus, was a relevant topic. Palafox's book was based on the informative reports sent by various missionaries in The Philippines and probably China. Inherent in his pastoral work in New Spain, Palafox had alive interest in missionary work in the Philippines and by extension to the rest of Asia, hence he had access to the regular reports that crossed the Pacific Ocean in the galleons that communicated Manila and Acapulco. The appearance in Paris in 1670 of a book signed by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza on the Fall of the Ming dynasty in China, History of the conquest of China by Tartarus, was a relevant topic. Palafox's book was based on the informative reports sent by various missionaries in The Philippines and probably China. Inherent in his pastoral work in New Spain, Palafox had alive interest in missionary work in the Philippines and by extension to the rest of Asia, hence he had access to the regular reports that crossed the Pacific Ocean in the galleons that communicated Manila and Acapulco.
Between written reports and live comments from missionaries who traveled through Mexico on their way to
On the other side of the Pacific, the bishop became interested in the enormous transformation that was taking place in
China with the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and the rise of a new dynasty forged by the Manchu, the people who had invaded the great Empire.
During the same period, the prelate also thoroughly documented the evangelizing practices of the Jesuits in China. It is reported that, between 1643 and 1646, Palafox accumulated information relevant on the China issue. During the preparations for his return trip to Spain in June In 1649 he had two volumes of such files bound, which contained apologies and treatises on the "ecclesiastical controversies of China", written by Dominicans, Jesuits and Franciscans. Such information, apparently deposited in the Library of the University of Salamanca, contains a brief relation which reconstructs "the manner and means by which these apologies came into the hands of his honor."
The book belongs by nature to the chronicles written by dozens of Spanish and Portuguese missionaries who traveled to Asia and entered China since the 16th century, among which the Augustinian Martin stands out.
de Rada (1533-1578); the Jesuit Diego de Pantoja10 (1571-1618); Antonio de Gouvea, Jesuit (1592-1677);
Domingo Fernández de Navarrete, Dominican (1610-1689), who wrote in Spanish and Portuguese. In the
historiography tends to forget that during the second half of the sixteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese
they were the almost exclusive vehicles of information in Europe about China.
This fact changed as the Jesuits entered China with exclusive privilege (Bula Ex pastoralis
officio of January 26, 1585) which reserved them the right to evangelize that part of Asia. It increased in
proportion the presence of missionaries from other latitudes, especially from central and northern Europe12.
One advantage that the bishop of Puebla had corresponded to the importance of New Spain as
distribution center for missionaries heading to the East. The close link between the American kingdom and the Philippines can hardly be disguised, because in addition to huge amounts of silver in exchange for
Asian products, merchants, bureaucrats, missionaries and men of letters moved, taking ideas and books with them. During the decade he was in Mexico, Juan de Palafox was in charge of
promote the opening of trade between the American territories and the Philippines.
Testimonials that also reported on regime change in China, but offering the idea that the new leaders regained the brilliance of imperial power. All this overshadowed not only the book of the bishop of Puebla, but in general works written in Spanish or Portuguese on these topics.
In April 1644, a rebellious Chinese military man Li Zicheng advanced on Beijing and violently captured the city; Chongzen (1611-1644), the last Ming emperor, fled the imperial palace and committed suicide in a nearby hill; a tragic scene that still captures the imagination of the Chinese population, as it was a monarch unable to defend his empire.
This insurrection literally opened the doors for the Manchu from the north could enter China that same year. One of the Ming generals who had attacked the insurgents, General Wu Sangui was suddenly faced with the dilemma of attacking the rebel Li Zicheng or face the invading Manchu troops. His decision was to ally himself with the Manchu, whom he had fought for years on the northern border and knew their methods of warfare, their culture and their ways of government, closer to their own vision of what should be the correct leadership of China.
On June 6, 1644, the Manchu, supported by the Chinese general Wu Sangui, entered the capital, The gates of the Forbidden City were opened and a boy was enthroned as emperor, with the title of Shunzhi, which means to obey to rule (Xunchi, Great King of Tartary, according to Palafox). A new dynasty, of Manchu origin, would rule China for the next 267 years.
Long and bloody battles were fought. Two aspirants to the Ming throne
They fought in the region during 1646 and 1647, until Chinese forces of the new Qing regime, led by Li Chengdong, crushed the remaining forces, but until 1673 armed resistance movements continued to be registered in southern China.
A special case is of the military chief Zheng Chenggong, known in the West as Koxinga, who represented the ancestral local interests of the Fujián province, opposite the island of Taiwan.
Born in 1624 to a Japanese mother, he is an emblematic character of a leading generation closely connected to the commercial opening of China since the previous century. The Zheng clan actually controlled
maritime trade from Nagasaki to Macao and Koxinga had developed the capacity to deal
cultural culture —including the command of several languages— in the region, without discounting the new presence of foreigners from Europe. This leader had the ability to initiate the siege against the Manchu regime throughout the southern coast of China throughout the 1950s.
Laconically Palafox concludes:
“Here the so celebrated Empire of China came to an end, and was subject in all its fifteen provinces to the Xunchi great King of Tartary, a boy from thirteen to fourteen years old, when the conquest ended, and Lord
of three crowns, that of Tartary, that of China and that of Korea, which make up an Empire of excessive and
continued greatness. The conquest of so many great Reynos ended in less than four years; That
can say of their flags, like those of Alexander, that it does not seem that they were conquering, but
walking the world ”.
It is important to reflect on a long-term historical perspective to analyze this period with that the Manchu conquest of China is seen as a "barbarous invasion", essentially referring to to a "nomadic" people who "destroyed" the Ming dynasty in 1644 to establish a new dynasty (called Qing, which means pure or clear, 1644-1911). They are generally compared to the Mongols commanded by Kublai Khan, who two centuries earlier conquered China and founded the Yuan dynasty (1206- 1368). The most popular interpretation observes only certain similarities between Mongols and Manchu, such as the use of horses in warfare, tribal values and social organization, but it tends to simplify the idea as if it were a replay of history, in which they appear steppe warriors and they subjugate the complex Chinese power.
In China at that time it was common to refer to all peoples outside the Great Wall as
barbarians, horsemen of the prairies. Therefore, it is still common to place these peoples in the same Tartar identity. Thus, the Mongols would be the same as the Jurchen (or Manchu, which is pronounced mancho-u), the Kazakhs or the Uyghurs. It is a simple anachronism, like saying Chichimecas to all the peoples of the
Northern Mexico, be they Pimas, Apaches or Tarahumara.
Palafox points out: “The Government of the Tartars is so admirable with being of gentiles and Tartars,
that those who pride themselves on being more politicians can learn from them ”.
“The example of the Kings is so powerful that it not only exhorts, but also commands and forces imitation:
Hence it is that King Xunchi's ministers rule in his imitation with such righteousness that they themselves
Surrendered Chinese celebrate it with appreciation, which is a great proof of their goodness; because it is so ordinary to miss a new government, no matter how good it may be ”.
Before the invasion of China, the Manchu leader Nurhaci introduced a system at the beginning of the century that
guaranteed him political promotion: he organized his troops and families in eight "flags", which were distinguished from
according to the color (yellow, red, blue and white, some simple and others embroidered). The flags served to identify the troops during the battles, but they also corresponded to a search warrant
of the population in daily life. Nurhaci also encouraged the activity of artisans to make weapons and armor.
Palafox writes: “Weapons are the temptation of the Tartars. In them they have their taste and their will; and
it is more gala among them to have a right face with wounds and scars, than in other nations to have it
in welded with cape, and locks curled to the mirror, and burnished with oil, with infamy of the nation and even of
manly sex ”(said this in the middle of the century of baroque wigs in Europe and America). “This affection and application of the Tartars to arms, all of China being so great is today made a Vulcan smithy, carving differences of arms; that neither blacksmiths, nor locksmiths, nor foundries do anything else at all
the Empire".
Chapter XXIV is devoted to exposing the martyrdom of Christians in Japan in 1647, but the most notable is
the view that if China invaded its neighbor there would probably be better conditions for Catholic evangelization. "This would be the great trace of heaven and singular providence of God our Lord, if Tartarus conquered Japan, and opened the door to holy faith, as it opens in China, so that the
Japan dies, as the Chinese has died, at the hands of its own misgivings, and knew that there are no doors
closed for God, because he opens them, when he wants with the keys that are least expected ”.
Chapter XXV is dedicated to ‘the worship and false religion of the Tartars, and their virtues and vices natural ”. He affirms that the Tartars are atheists: “The first because they do not recognize any God, nor do they have no religion; the second because they worship all the Gods, and admit all religions, or at least much less do they miss any religion or superstition they find (…) they only worship heaven in bulk; because they see him tall, big and lucid ”. Recognize that they have respected the religions that were practiced in China, especially Buddhism, but he hopes that it will try to control the (Buddhist) monks, which if it happens “will be a very important action for the introduction of the true Catholic religion, of which these (Buddhists) were the greatest enemies, and the greatest hindrance, not so much by the Zeal of his false religion, as by the one of his true comfort ”. Briefly mention the Jesuits who had established house, church, and relationships with the Ming emperors since the previous century. When mentioning the tolerance with which the new ruler handles himself and showing esteem for Catholic missionary priests, even more so than Buddhists.
He adds that “they were very favorable, giving parents patents or security badges, and dealing with them with familiarity and trust: not even the grievances they did were made out of hatred of the
religion; that Tartarus abhors no religion, but because of the cruelty and natural insolence of the people
of war, and more in war of barbarians ”.
A very interesting hint about the new times in the Manchu capital is: "In the court of Beijing
where King Xunchi resides, the Tartar Ladies enter our Church, although so far it is more for
curiosity than by religion, and they revere the holy images that are on the altars of the Church.
Think that they do it to please the parents; because they see them esteemed of King Tartarus, and of the great
of his court; and because they are easy, and simple, courteous, and do not reject any religion. What a
good beginning, so that the principles give ear to the Catholic.
Other qualities of
the Manchu and the Chinese. "In peace they are antipodes of himself (s) in war, because in war
we have already seen that they are severe, cruel, inexorable and friends of human blood: and in peace (...) they are
easy, flat, affable, smiling and courteous ”. “They are not petty courtesies like the Chinese. Do not try
genuflections, or sweeping the ground with their foreheads, as they used with the Mandarins of China or
they used to wear in his presence ”. Particularly enjoyable are the stories about Manchu fashion
imposed on the Chinese and the differences in customs compared to the Han.
It is curious to find in the text, two Mexicanisms: chocolate and pinole: “They drink cold water from our mode and not hot, like the Chinese and Japanese. The Cha, which is an ordinary drink and gift and courtship in this fort, like chocolate; although there is also cold in the way of the Pinole ”. Later, when he describes the elaborate hats in the Manchu fashion, which were adorned with low-quality yellow silk and in several cases of a dry grass "colored gold and similar to the flower of corn", a typically Mexican product.
Palafox's book refers throughout various chapters to the effects of the Manchu invasion on China's neighboring countries, in particular, a product of that unbeatable force, was the conquest of Korea. It mentions the difficult relations with Japan and the dealings with states considered tributary by the Empire Ming: Tunchin, Conchinchina, Champa (all three now part of Vietnam), Cambodia, Sihan (Thailand), Patani (in Malaysia), Macafar, Solor, Sumatra (all three in Indonesia), Xacatia (in India, under Dutch control). Special mention deserves the benign treatment he gave to foreigners, especially Portuguese, in Canton and Macao. In the case of the Philippines, Palafox's informants assess the appalling state it was in the colony, affected by the wars in China, the lack of trade with Japan, which had slowed down trade.
Under the
Portuguese patronage, the Jesuits did indeed perform an impressive evangelizing task both in
China as in Japan, full of mysticism and even the magic necessary to attract the attention of
historians. Certainly the effort made by giants, as Dunn calls early missionaries like Matteo Ricci, Alessandro Valignano, and Luis Frois, is worthy of being more widely known.
All of them followed the path inaugurated in the middle of the 16th century by Francisco Xavier, of proportions
legendary. Being one of the founders of the Society of Jesus in 1540, two years later he was already
en route to the Portuguese port of Goa in India. Then in 1545 in Malacca, on the Malaysian peninsula; the
Moluccas (1546), Japan (1549). Starting in 1552, shortly before his death, he planned the largest undertaking of his
trip: Christianize China.
However, the Jesuit strategy of evangelization in Asia properly began in 1578 with the arrival in Macao of the General Visitor of the Society of Jesus in the Far East, Alessandro Valignano.
As a representative of the belligerent Jesuit discipline, the Italian had to consider all angles
necessary for evangelization in China and the most suitable method to adapt the Catholic ritual;
make it less European and more Chinese, without losing its essence. For this, he chose two extraordinarily prepared missionaries, Ruggieri and Ricci, both Italians with particular gifts in the handling of mnemonics, languages, chemistry, mathematics and cosmology. Both Jesuits, though not Portuguese,
they took refuge in the Padroado. Under Valignano's supervision, and with the purpose of furthering their missionary endeavor, they established bold trading mechanisms now known as the Jesuit silk trade.
In 1638 the Dominicans had formally accused the Jesuits of not complying with, or even violating, the Catholic liturgy in China. In this way the conflict over the so-called Chinese rites reached the highest Roman levels. The charges against the Jesuits are that they allowed the new converts not to attend mass on Sunday; they did not administer the holy oils to women in a state of death; they accepted the exercise of usury on the part of the newly converted. They accused the Jesuits of accepting idolatries and superstitions, establishing a long list of accusations to the effect that the worship of false gods and paganism. Missionaries of other orders complained that Japan did not there were crosses in Jesuit temples.
At this point, Palafox was convinced that he should intervene in the matter and sent his opinions both to King Felipe IV and to Pope Innocent X. In both memorials the prelate expresses four points which he considered dangerous. 1) Hide the crucifix of Christ and not preach the passion, 2) allow and even participate in gentile and superstitious rites, such as those dedicated to Confucius, 3) authorize a mixture of faith and idolatry by leading prayers to a concealed cross on the altar while apparently being worshiped pagan idols, 4) freeing new converts from religious norms (fasting, confession, mass).
Meanwhile, it should be noted that in China the Manchu invasion put the loyalties of the Company's fathers to the test, as already mentioned, since they had obtained a deal since the end of the 16th century.
preferential in the private circle of the Ming emperors and now they were faced with the dilemma of
get closer to the new power. At first they showed their neutrality to the new authorities, which
it served to save their life. Those who remained in Beijing successfully attempted a new approach, as was the case with Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1592-1666), who in a short time gained the trust of the young and curious Manchu emperor, who appointed him director of the Imperial Observatory. and from
Mathematics Court.
A different story was that of the Company's missionaries in the south, such as Alvaro de Semedo (1585-
1658), who remained close to the Ming resistance. The aforementioned Polish priest Michael
Boym (c. 1612-1659) traveled to Europe accompanied by relatives of the dethroned Ming Emperor, in order to
win the support of the kings and the Pope. He was unsuccessful in his mission as the winds of change indicated
from Rome, Madrid, Mexico City or Manila that it was preferable to assimilate the presence of the regime
Manchu. "Time was in favor of continuity."
I BELIEVE THAT ALL THIS INFORMATION CAN ADD EVEN MORE TO THIS THREAD OF KD: SH Archive - 1899-1901: Boxer Rebellion. What are they hiding?
 

Oracle

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Written in the 1940s of the 17th century
Did you mean the 1640's or that the book was written in the 1940's?
Just seeking clarification. 👍
Also
Juan de Palafox y China
Written in the 1940s of the 17th century and, for the other, the bishop's participation in the so-called controversy of the rites of China, especially from of the letter written in 1649 to Pope Innocent X, in which he denounces the practices considered unorthodox evangelism used by Jesuit missionaries in East Asia.
A first part of this essay is dedicated to analyzing the book on the fall of the Ming dynasty in
1644, in the context of the information that then flowed to Europe, supported by the historiography that has cataloged various similar contemporary chronicles on the subject. The second part describes the subject of the book, the Manchu invasion of China and the perception of the historical crisis of
worldwide impact that undoubtedly impacted audiences around the world. Finally, the third part addresses Palafox's participation in the controversial issue of the evangelization of China by
part of the Jesuits in those same years, from the perspective of the statesman concerned about the
serious deterioration of the Spanish Empire of those fateful years; a power harassed from the outside and fragmented in its inner structure.
The appearance in Paris in 1670 of a book signed by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza on the Fall of the Ming dynasty in China, History of the conquest of China by Tartarus, was a relevant topic. Palafox's book was based on the informative reports sent by various missionaries in The Philippines and probably China. Inherent in his pastoral work in New Spain, Palafox had alive interest in missionary work in the Philippines and by extension to the rest of Asia, hence he had access to the regular reports that crossed the Pacific Ocean in the galleons that communicated Manila and Acapulco. The appearance in Paris in 1670 of a book signed by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza on the Fall of the Ming dynasty in China, History of the conquest of China by Tartarus, was a relevant topic. Palafox's book was based on the informative reports sent by various missionaries in The Philippines and probably China. Inherent in his pastoral work in New Spain, Palafox had alive interest in missionary work in the Philippines and by extension to the rest of Asia, hence he had access to the regular reports that crossed the Pacific Ocean in the galleons that communicated Manila and Acapulco.
Between written reports and live comments from missionaries who traveled through Mexico on their way to
On the other side of the Pacific, the bishop became interested in the enormous transformation that was taking place in
China with the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and the rise of a new dynasty forged by the Manchu, the people who had invaded the great Empire.
During the same period, the prelate also thoroughly documented the evangelizing practices of the Jesuits in China. It is reported that, between 1643 and 1646, Palafox accumulated information relevant on the China issue. During the preparations for his return trip to Spain in June In 1649 he had two volumes of such files bound, which contained apologies and treatises on the "ecclesiastical controversies of China", written by Dominicans, Jesuits and Franciscans. Such information, apparently deposited in the Library of the University of Salamanca, contains a brief relation which reconstructs "the manner and means by which these apologies came into the hands of his honor."
The book belongs by nature to the chronicles written by dozens of Spanish and Portuguese missionaries who traveled to Asia and entered China since the 16th century, among which the Augustinian Martin stands out.
de Rada (1533-1578); the Jesuit Diego de Pantoja10 (1571-1618); Antonio de Gouvea, Jesuit (1592-1677);
Domingo Fernández de Navarrete, Dominican (1610-1689), who wrote in Spanish and Portuguese. In the
historiography tends to forget that during the second half of the sixteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese
they were the almost exclusive vehicles of information in Europe about China.
This fact changed as the Jesuits entered China with exclusive privilege (Bula Ex pastoralis
officio of January 26, 1585) which reserved them the right to evangelize that part of Asia. It increased in
proportion the presence of missionaries from other latitudes, especially from central and northern Europe12.
One advantage that the bishop of Puebla had corresponded to the importance of New Spain as
distribution center for missionaries heading to the East. The close link between the American kingdom and the Philippines can hardly be disguised, because in addition to huge amounts of silver in exchange for
Asian products, merchants, bureaucrats, missionaries and men of letters moved, taking ideas and books with them. During the decade he was in Mexico, Juan de Palafox was in charge of
promote the opening of trade between the American territories and the Philippines.
Testimonials that also reported on regime change in China, but offering the idea that the new leaders regained the brilliance of imperial power. All this overshadowed not only the book of the bishop of Puebla, but in general works written in Spanish or Portuguese on these topics.
In April 1644, a rebellious Chinese military man Li Zicheng advanced on Beijing and violently captured the city; Chongzen (1611-1644), the last Ming emperor, fled the imperial palace and committed suicide in a nearby hill; a tragic scene that still captures the imagination of the Chinese population, as it was a monarch unable to defend his empire.
This insurrection literally opened the doors for the Manchu from the north could enter China that same year. One of the Ming generals who had attacked the insurgents, General Wu Sangui was suddenly faced with the dilemma of attacking the rebel Li Zicheng or face the invading Manchu troops. His decision was to ally himself with the Manchu, whom he had fought for years on the northern border and knew their methods of warfare, their culture and their ways of government, closer to their own vision of what should be the correct leadership of China.
On June 6, 1644, the Manchu, supported by the Chinese general Wu Sangui, entered the capital, The gates of the Forbidden City were opened and a boy was enthroned as emperor, with the title of Shunzhi, which means to obey to rule (Xunchi, Great King of Tartary, according to Palafox). A new dynasty, of Manchu origin, would rule China for the next 267 years.
Long and bloody battles were fought. Two aspirants to the Ming throne
They fought in the region during 1646 and 1647, until Chinese forces of the new Qing regime, led by Li Chengdong, crushed the remaining forces, but until 1673 armed resistance movements continued to be registered in southern China.
A special case is of the military chief Zheng Chenggong, known in the West as Koxinga, who represented the ancestral local interests of the Fujián province, opposite the island of Taiwan.
Born in 1624 to a Japanese mother, he is an emblematic character of a leading generation closely connected to the commercial opening of China since the previous century. The Zheng clan actually controlled
maritime trade from Nagasaki to Macao and Koxinga had developed the capacity to deal
cultural culture —including the command of several languages— in the region, without discounting the new presence of foreigners from Europe. This leader had the ability to initiate the siege against the Manchu regime throughout the southern coast of China throughout the 1950s.
Laconically Palafox concludes:
“Here the so celebrated Empire of China came to an end, and was subject in all its fifteen provinces to the Xunchi great King of Tartary, a boy from thirteen to fourteen years old, when the conquest ended, and Lord
of three crowns, that of Tartary, that of China and that of Korea, which make up an Empire of excessive and
continued greatness. The conquest of so many great Reynos ended in less than four years; That
can say of their flags, like those of Alexander, that it does not seem that they were conquering, but
walking the world ”.
It is important to reflect on a long-term historical perspective to analyze this period with that the Manchu conquest of China is seen as a "barbarous invasion", essentially referring to to a "nomadic" people who "destroyed" the Ming dynasty in 1644 to establish a new dynasty (called Qing, which means pure or clear, 1644-1911). They are generally compared to the Mongols commanded by Kublai Khan, who two centuries earlier conquered China and founded the Yuan dynasty (1206- 1368). The most popular interpretation observes only certain similarities between Mongols and Manchu, such as the use of horses in warfare, tribal values and social organization, but it tends to simplify the idea as if it were a replay of history, in which they appear steppe warriors and they subjugate the complex Chinese power.
In China at that time it was common to refer to all peoples outside the Great Wall as
barbarians, horsemen of the prairies. Therefore, it is still common to place these peoples in the same Tartar identity. Thus, the Mongols would be the same as the Jurchen (or Manchu, which is pronounced mancho-u), the Kazakhs or the Uyghurs. It is a simple anachronism, like saying Chichimecas to all the peoples of the
Northern Mexico, be they Pimas, Apaches or Tarahumara.
Palafox points out: “The Government of the Tartars is so admirable with being of gentiles and Tartars,
that those who pride themselves on being more politicians can learn from them ”.
“The example of the Kings is so powerful that it not only exhorts, but also commands and forces imitation:
Hence it is that King Xunchi's ministers rule in his imitation with such righteousness that they themselves
Surrendered Chinese celebrate it with appreciation, which is a great proof of their goodness; because it is so ordinary to miss a new government, no matter how good it may be ”.
Before the invasion of China, the Manchu leader Nurhaci introduced a system at the beginning of the century that
guaranteed him political promotion: he organized his troops and families in eight "flags", which were distinguished from
according to the color (yellow, red, blue and white, some simple and others embroidered). The flags served to identify the troops during the battles, but they also corresponded to a search warrant
of the population in daily life. Nurhaci also encouraged the activity of artisans to make weapons and armor.
Palafox writes: “Weapons are the temptation of the Tartars. In them they have their taste and their will; and
it is more gala among them to have a right face with wounds and scars, than in other nations to have it
in welded with cape, and locks curled to the mirror, and burnished with oil, with infamy of the nation and even of
manly sex ”(said this in the middle of the century of baroque wigs in Europe and America). “This affection and application of the Tartars to arms, all of China being so great is today made a Vulcan smithy, carving differences of arms; that neither blacksmiths, nor locksmiths, nor foundries do anything else at all
the Empire".
Chapter XXIV is devoted to exposing the martyrdom of Christians in Japan in 1647, but the most notable is
the view that if China invaded its neighbor there would probably be better conditions for Catholic evangelization. "This would be the great trace of heaven and singular providence of God our Lord, if Tartarus conquered Japan, and opened the door to holy faith, as it opens in China, so that the
Japan dies, as the Chinese has died, at the hands of its own misgivings, and knew that there are no doors
closed for God, because he opens them, when he wants with the keys that are least expected ”.
Chapter XXV is dedicated to ‘the worship and false religion of the Tartars, and their virtues and vices natural ”. He affirms that the Tartars are atheists: “The first because they do not recognize any God, nor do they have no religion; the second because they worship all the Gods, and admit all religions, or at least much less do they miss any religion or superstition they find (…) they only worship heaven in bulk; because they see him tall, big and lucid ”. Recognize that they have respected the religions that were practiced in China, especially Buddhism, but he hopes that it will try to control the (Buddhist) monks, which if it happens “will be a very important action for the introduction of the true Catholic religion, of which these (Buddhists) were the greatest enemies, and the greatest hindrance, not so much by the Zeal of his false religion, as by the one of his true comfort ”. Briefly mention the Jesuits who had established house, church, and relationships with the Ming emperors since the previous century. When mentioning the tolerance with which the new ruler handles himself and showing esteem for Catholic missionary priests, even more so than Buddhists.
He adds that “they were very favorable, giving parents patents or security badges, and dealing with them with familiarity and trust: not even the grievances they did were made out of hatred of the
religion; that Tartarus abhors no religion, but because of the cruelty and natural insolence of the people
of war, and more in war of barbarians ”.
A very interesting hint about the new times in the Manchu capital is: "In the court of Beijing
where King Xunchi resides, the Tartar Ladies enter our Church, although so far it is more for
curiosity than by religion, and they revere the holy images that are on the altars of the Church.
Think that they do it to please the parents; because they see them esteemed of King Tartarus, and of the great
of his court; and because they are easy, and simple, courteous, and do not reject any religion. What a
good beginning, so that the principles give ear to the Catholic.
Other qualities of
the Manchu and the Chinese. "In peace they are antipodes of himself (s) in war, because in war
we have already seen that they are severe, cruel, inexorable and friends of human blood: and in peace (...) they are
easy, flat, affable, smiling and courteous ”. “They are not petty courtesies like the Chinese. Do not try
genuflections, or sweeping the ground with their foreheads, as they used with the Mandarins of China or
they used to wear in his presence ”. Particularly enjoyable are the stories about Manchu fashion
imposed on the Chinese and the differences in customs compared to the Han.
It is curious to find in the text, two Mexicanisms: chocolate and pinole: “They drink cold water from our mode and not hot, like the Chinese and Japanese. The Cha, which is an ordinary drink and gift and courtship in this fort, like chocolate; although there is also cold in the way of the Pinole ”. Later, when he describes the elaborate hats in the Manchu fashion, which were adorned with low-quality yellow silk and in several cases of a dry grass "colored gold and similar to the flower of corn", a typically Mexican product.
Palafox's book refers throughout various chapters to the effects of the Manchu invasion on China's neighboring countries, in particular, a product of that unbeatable force, was the conquest of Korea. It mentions the difficult relations with Japan and the dealings with states considered tributary by the Empire Ming: Tunchin, Conchinchina, Champa (all three now part of Vietnam), Cambodia, Sihan (Thailand), Patani (in Malaysia), Macafar, Solor, Sumatra (all three in Indonesia), Xacatia (in India, under Dutch control). Special mention deserves the benign treatment he gave to foreigners, especially Portuguese, in Canton and Macao. In the case of the Philippines, Palafox's informants assess the appalling state it was in the colony, affected by the wars in China, the lack of trade with Japan, which had slowed down trade.
Under the
Portuguese patronage, the Jesuits did indeed perform an impressive evangelizing task both in
China as in Japan, full of mysticism and even the magic necessary to attract the attention of
historians. Certainly the effort made by giants, as Dunn calls early missionaries like Matteo Ricci, Alessandro Valignano, and Luis Frois, is worthy of being more widely known.
All of them followed the path inaugurated in the middle of the 16th century by Francisco Xavier, of proportions
legendary. Being one of the founders of the Society of Jesus in 1540, two years later he was already
en route to the Portuguese port of Goa in India. Then in 1545 in Malacca, on the Malaysian peninsula; the
Moluccas (1546), Japan (1549). Starting in 1552, shortly before his death, he planned the largest undertaking of his
trip: Christianize China.
However, the Jesuit strategy of evangelization in Asia properly began in 1578 with the arrival in Macao of the General Visitor of the Society of Jesus in the Far East, Alessandro Valignano.
As a representative of the belligerent Jesuit discipline, the Italian had to consider all angles
necessary for evangelization in China and the most suitable method to adapt the Catholic ritual;
make it less European and more Chinese, without losing its essence. For this, he chose two extraordinarily prepared missionaries, Ruggieri and Ricci, both Italians with particular gifts in the handling of mnemonics, languages, chemistry, mathematics and cosmology. Both Jesuits, though not Portuguese,
they took refuge in the Padroado. Under Valignano's supervision, and with the purpose of furthering their missionary endeavor, they established bold trading mechanisms now known as the Jesuit silk trade.
In 1638 the Dominicans had formally accused the Jesuits of not complying with, or even violating, the Catholic liturgy in China. In this way the conflict over the so-called Chinese rites reached the highest Roman levels. The charges against the Jesuits are that they allowed the new converts not to attend mass on Sunday; they did not administer the holy oils to women in a state of death; they accepted the exercise of usury on the part of the newly converted. They accused the Jesuits of accepting idolatries and superstitions, establishing a long list of accusations to the effect that the worship of false gods and paganism. Missionaries of other orders complained that Japan did not there were crosses in Jesuit temples.
At this point, Palafox was convinced that he should intervene in the matter and sent his opinions both to King Felipe IV and to Pope Innocent X. In both memorials the prelate expresses four points which he considered dangerous. 1) Hide the crucifix of Christ and not preach the passion, 2) allow and even participate in gentile and superstitious rites, such as those dedicated to Confucius, 3) authorize a mixture of faith and idolatry by leading prayers to a concealed cross on the altar while apparently being worshiped pagan idols, 4) freeing new converts from religious norms (fasting, confession, mass).
Meanwhile, it should be noted that in China the Manchu invasion put the loyalties of the Company's fathers to the test, as already mentioned, since they had obtained a deal since the end of the 16th century.
preferential in the private circle of the Ming emperors and now they were faced with the dilemma of
get closer to the new power. At first they showed their neutrality to the new authorities, which
it served to save their life. Those who remained in Beijing successfully attempted a new approach, as was the case with Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1592-1666), who in a short time gained the trust of the young and curious Manchu emperor, who appointed him director of the Imperial Observatory. and from
Mathematics Court.
A different story was that of the Company's missionaries in the south, such as Alvaro de Semedo (1585-
1658), who remained close to the Ming resistance. The aforementioned Polish priest Michael
Boym (c. 1612-1659) traveled to Europe accompanied by relatives of the dethroned Ming Emperor, in order to
win the support of the kings and the Pope. He was unsuccessful in his mission as the winds of change indicated
from Rome, Madrid, Mexico City or Manila that it was preferable to assimilate the presence of the regime
Manchu. "Time was in favor of continuity."
I BELIEVE THAT ALL THIS INFORMATION CAN ADD EVEN MORE TO THIS THREAD OF KD: SH Archive - 1899-1901: Boxer Rebellion. What are they hiding?
Also here....
the siege against the Manchu regime throughout the southern coast of China throughout the 1950s
Thanks
 

SonofaBor

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Juan de Palafox y China
Written in the 1940s of the 17th century and, for the other, the bishop's participation in the so-called controversy of the rites of China, especially from of the letter written in 1649 to Pope Innocent X, in which he denounces the practices considered unorthodox evangelism used by Jesuit missionaries in East Asia.
A first part of this essay is dedicat.....

references please!

拜托 !
 

HELLBOY

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Written in the 1940s of the 17th century
Did you mean the 1640's or that the book was written in the 1940's?
Just seeking clarification. 👍
Also
Juan de Palafox y China
Written in the 1940s of the 17th century and, for the other, the bishop's participation in the so-called controversy of the rites of China, especially from of the letter written in 1649 to Pope Innocent X, in which he denounces the practices considered unorthodox evangelism used by Jesuit missionaries in East Asia.
A first part of this essay is dedicated to analyzing the book on the fall of the Ming dynasty in
1644, in the context of the information that then flowed to Europe, supported by the historiography that has cataloged various similar contemporary chronicles on the subject. The second part describes the subject of the book, the Manchu invasion of China and the perception of the historical crisis of
worldwide impact that undoubtedly impacted audiences around the world. Finally, the third part addresses Palafox's participation in the controversial issue of the evangelization of China by
part of the Jesuits in those same years, from the perspective of the statesman concerned about the
serious deterioration of the Spanish Empire of those fateful years; a power harassed from the outside and fragmented in its inner structure.
The appearance in Paris in 1670 of a book signed by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza on the Fall of the Ming dynasty in China, History of the conquest of China by Tartarus, was a relevant topic. Palafox's book was based on the informative reports sent by various missionaries in The Philippines and probably China. Inherent in his pastoral work in New Spain, Palafox had alive interest in missionary work in the Philippines and by extension to the rest of Asia, hence he had access to the regular reports that crossed the Pacific Ocean in the galleons that communicated Manila and Acapulco. The appearance in Paris in 1670 of a book signed by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza on the Fall of the Ming dynasty in China, History of the conquest of China by Tartarus, was a relevant topic. Palafox's book was based on the informative reports sent by various missionaries in The Philippines and probably China. Inherent in his pastoral work in New Spain, Palafox had alive interest in missionary work in the Philippines and by extension to the rest of Asia, hence he had access to the regular reports that crossed the Pacific Ocean in the galleons that communicated Manila and Acapulco.
Between written reports and live comments from missionaries who traveled through Mexico on their way to
On the other side of the Pacific, the bishop became interested in the enormous transformation that was taking place in
China with the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and the rise of a new dynasty forged by the Manchu, the people who had invaded the great Empire.
During the same period, the prelate also thoroughly documented the evangelizing practices of the Jesuits in China. It is reported that, between 1643 and 1646, Palafox accumulated information relevant on the China issue. During the preparations for his return trip to Spain in June In 1649 he had two volumes of such files bound, which contained apologies and treatises on the "ecclesiastical controversies of China", written by Dominicans, Jesuits and Franciscans. Such information, apparently deposited in the Library of the University of Salamanca, contains a brief relation which reconstructs "the manner and means by which these apologies came into the hands of his honor."
The book belongs by nature to the chronicles written by dozens of Spanish and Portuguese missionaries who traveled to Asia and entered China since the 16th century, among which the Augustinian Martin stands out.
de Rada (1533-1578); the Jesuit Diego de Pantoja10 (1571-1618); Antonio de Gouvea, Jesuit (1592-1677);
Domingo Fernández de Navarrete, Dominican (1610-1689), who wrote in Spanish and Portuguese. In the
historiography tends to forget that during the second half of the sixteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese
they were the almost exclusive vehicles of information in Europe about China.
This fact changed as the Jesuits entered China with exclusive privilege (Bula Ex pastoralis
officio of January 26, 1585) which reserved them the right to evangelize that part of Asia. It increased in
proportion the presence of missionaries from other latitudes, especially from central and northern Europe12.
One advantage that the bishop of Puebla had corresponded to the importance of New Spain as
distribution center for missionaries heading to the East. The close link between the American kingdom and the Philippines can hardly be disguised, because in addition to huge amounts of silver in exchange for
Asian products, merchants, bureaucrats, missionaries and men of letters moved, taking ideas and books with them. During the decade he was in Mexico, Juan de Palafox was in charge of
promote the opening of trade between the American territories and the Philippines.
Testimonials that also reported on regime change in China, but offering the idea that the new leaders regained the brilliance of imperial power. All this overshadowed not only the book of the bishop of Puebla, but in general works written in Spanish or Portuguese on these topics.
In April 1644, a rebellious Chinese military man Li Zicheng advanced on Beijing and violently captured the city; Chongzen (1611-1644), the last Ming emperor, fled the imperial palace and committed suicide in a nearby hill; a tragic scene that still captures the imagination of the Chinese population, as it was a monarch unable to defend his empire.
This insurrection literally opened the doors for the Manchu from the north could enter China that same year. One of the Ming generals who had attacked the insurgents, General Wu Sangui was suddenly faced with the dilemma of attacking the rebel Li Zicheng or face the invading Manchu troops. His decision was to ally himself with the Manchu, whom he had fought for years on the northern border and knew their methods of warfare, their culture and their ways of government, closer to their own vision of what should be the correct leadership of China.
On June 6, 1644, the Manchu, supported by the Chinese general Wu Sangui, entered the capital, The gates of the Forbidden City were opened and a boy was enthroned as emperor, with the title of Shunzhi, which means to obey to rule (Xunchi, Great King of Tartary, according to Palafox). A new dynasty, of Manchu origin, would rule China for the next 267 years.
Long and bloody battles were fought. Two aspirants to the Ming throne
They fought in the region during 1646 and 1647, until Chinese forces of the new Qing regime, led by Li Chengdong, crushed the remaining forces, but until 1673 armed resistance movements continued to be registered in southern China.
A special case is of the military chief Zheng Chenggong, known in the West as Koxinga, who represented the ancestral local interests of the Fujián province, opposite the island of Taiwan.
Born in 1624 to a Japanese mother, he is an emblematic character of a leading generation closely connected to the commercial opening of China since the previous century. The Zheng clan actually controlled
maritime trade from Nagasaki to Macao and Koxinga had developed the capacity to deal
cultural culture —including the command of several languages— in the region, without discounting the new presence of foreigners from Europe. This leader had the ability to initiate the siege against the Manchu regime throughout the southern coast of China throughout the 1950s.
Laconically Palafox concludes:
“Here the so celebrated Empire of China came to an end, and was subject in all its fifteen provinces to the Xunchi great King of Tartary, a boy from thirteen to fourteen years old, when the conquest ended, and Lord
of three crowns, that of Tartary, that of China and that of Korea, which make up an Empire of excessive and
continued greatness. The conquest of so many great Reynos ended in less than four years; That
can say of their flags, like those of Alexander, that it does not seem that they were conquering, but
walking the world ”.
It is important to reflect on a long-term historical perspective to analyze this period with that the Manchu conquest of China is seen as a "barbarous invasion", essentially referring to to a "nomadic" people who "destroyed" the Ming dynasty in 1644 to establish a new dynasty (called Qing, which means pure or clear, 1644-1911). They are generally compared to the Mongols commanded by Kublai Khan, who two centuries earlier conquered China and founded the Yuan dynasty (1206- 1368). The most popular interpretation observes only certain similarities between Mongols and Manchu, such as the use of horses in warfare, tribal values and social organization, but it tends to simplify the idea as if it were a replay of history, in which they appear steppe warriors and they subjugate the complex Chinese power.
In China at that time it was common to refer to all peoples outside the Great Wall as
barbarians, horsemen of the prairies. Therefore, it is still common to place these peoples in the same Tartar identity. Thus, the Mongols would be the same as the Jurchen (or Manchu, which is pronounced mancho-u), the Kazakhs or the Uyghurs. It is a simple anachronism, like saying Chichimecas to all the peoples of the
Northern Mexico, be they Pimas, Apaches or Tarahumara.
Palafox points out: “The Government of the Tartars is so admirable with being of gentiles and Tartars,
that those who pride themselves on being more politicians can learn from them ”.
“The example of the Kings is so powerful that it not only exhorts, but also commands and forces imitation:
Hence it is that King Xunchi's ministers rule in his imitation with such righteousness that they themselves
Surrendered Chinese celebrate it with appreciation, which is a great proof of their goodness; because it is so ordinary to miss a new government, no matter how good it may be ”.
Before the invasion of China, the Manchu leader Nurhaci introduced a system at the beginning of the century that
guaranteed him political promotion: he organized his troops and families in eight "flags", which were distinguished from
according to the color (yellow, red, blue and white, some simple and others embroidered). The flags served to identify the troops during the battles, but they also corresponded to a search warrant
of the population in daily life. Nurhaci also encouraged the activity of artisans to make weapons and armor.
Palafox writes: “Weapons are the temptation of the Tartars. In them they have their taste and their will; and
it is more gala among them to have a right face with wounds and scars, than in other nations to have it
in welded with cape, and locks curled to the mirror, and burnished with oil, with infamy of the nation and even of
manly sex ”(said this in the middle of the century of baroque wigs in Europe and America). “This affection and application of the Tartars to arms, all of China being so great is today made a Vulcan smithy, carving differences of arms; that neither blacksmiths, nor locksmiths, nor foundries do anything else at all
the Empire".
Chapter XXIV is devoted to exposing the martyrdom of Christians in Japan in 1647, but the most notable is
the view that if China invaded its neighbor there would probably be better conditions for Catholic evangelization. "This would be the great trace of heaven and singular providence of God our Lord, if Tartarus conquered Japan, and opened the door to holy faith, as it opens in China, so that the
Japan dies, as the Chinese has died, at the hands of its own misgivings, and knew that there are no doors
closed for God, because he opens them, when he wants with the keys that are least expected ”.
Chapter XXV is dedicated to ‘the worship and false religion of the Tartars, and their virtues and vices natural ”. He affirms that the Tartars are atheists: “The first because they do not recognize any God, nor do they have no religion; the second because they worship all the Gods, and admit all religions, or at least much less do they miss any religion or superstition they find (…) they only worship heaven in bulk; because they see him tall, big and lucid ”. Recognize that they have respected the religions that were practiced in China, especially Buddhism, but he hopes that it will try to control the (Buddhist) monks, which if it happens “will be a very important action for the introduction of the true Catholic religion, of which these (Buddhists) were the greatest enemies, and the greatest hindrance, not so much by the Zeal of his false religion, as by the one of his true comfort ”. Briefly mention the Jesuits who had established house, church, and relationships with the Ming emperors since the previous century. When mentioning the tolerance with which the new ruler handles himself and showing esteem for Catholic missionary priests, even more so than Buddhists.
He adds that “they were very favorable, giving parents patents or security badges, and dealing with them with familiarity and trust: not even the grievances they did were made out of hatred of the
religion; that Tartarus abhors no religion, but because of the cruelty and natural insolence of the people
of war, and more in war of barbarians ”.
A very interesting hint about the new times in the Manchu capital is: "In the court of Beijing
where King Xunchi resides, the Tartar Ladies enter our Church, although so far it is more for
curiosity than by religion, and they revere the holy images that are on the altars of the Church.
Think that they do it to please the parents; because they see them esteemed of King Tartarus, and of the great
of his court; and because they are easy, and simple, courteous, and do not reject any religion. What a
good beginning, so that the principles give ear to the Catholic.
Other qualities of
the Manchu and the Chinese. "In peace they are antipodes of himself (s) in war, because in war
we have already seen that they are severe, cruel, inexorable and friends of human blood: and in peace (...) they are
easy, flat, affable, smiling and courteous ”. “They are not petty courtesies like the Chinese. Do not try
genuflections, or sweeping the ground with their foreheads, as they used with the Mandarins of China or
they used to wear in his presence ”. Particularly enjoyable are the stories about Manchu fashion
imposed on the Chinese and the differences in customs compared to the Han.
It is curious to find in the text, two Mexicanisms: chocolate and pinole: “They drink cold water from our mode and not hot, like the Chinese and Japanese. The Cha, which is an ordinary drink and gift and courtship in this fort, like chocolate; although there is also cold in the way of the Pinole ”. Later, when he describes the elaborate hats in the Manchu fashion, which were adorned with low-quality yellow silk and in several cases of a dry grass "colored gold and similar to the flower of corn", a typically Mexican product.
Palafox's book refers throughout various chapters to the effects of the Manchu invasion on China's neighboring countries, in particular, a product of that unbeatable force, was the conquest of Korea. It mentions the difficult relations with Japan and the dealings with states considered tributary by the Empire Ming: Tunchin, Conchinchina, Champa (all three now part of Vietnam), Cambodia, Sihan (Thailand), Patani (in Malaysia), Macafar, Solor, Sumatra (all three in Indonesia), Xacatia (in India, under Dutch control). Special mention deserves the benign treatment he gave to foreigners, especially Portuguese, in Canton and Macao. In the case of the Philippines, Palafox's informants assess the appalling state it was in the colony, affected by the wars in China, the lack of trade with Japan, which had slowed down trade.
Under the
Portuguese patronage, the Jesuits did indeed perform an impressive evangelizing task both in
China as in Japan, full of mysticism and even the magic necessary to attract the attention of
historians. Certainly the effort made by giants, as Dunn calls early missionaries like Matteo Ricci, Alessandro Valignano, and Luis Frois, is worthy of being more widely known.
All of them followed the path inaugurated in the middle of the 16th century by Francisco Xavier, of proportions
legendary. Being one of the founders of the Society of Jesus in 1540, two years later he was already
en route to the Portuguese port of Goa in India. Then in 1545 in Malacca, on the Malaysian peninsula; the
Moluccas (1546), Japan (1549). Starting in 1552, shortly before his death, he planned the largest undertaking of his
trip: Christianize China.
However, the Jesuit strategy of evangelization in Asia properly began in 1578 with the arrival in Macao of the General Visitor of the Society of Jesus in the Far East, Alessandro Valignano.
As a representative of the belligerent Jesuit discipline, the Italian had to consider all angles
necessary for evangelization in China and the most suitable method to adapt the Catholic ritual;
make it less European and more Chinese, without losing its essence. For this, he chose two extraordinarily prepared missionaries, Ruggieri and Ricci, both Italians with particular gifts in the handling of mnemonics, languages, chemistry, mathematics and cosmology. Both Jesuits, though not Portuguese,
they took refuge in the Padroado. Under Valignano's supervision, and with the purpose of furthering their missionary endeavor, they established bold trading mechanisms now known as the Jesuit silk trade.
In 1638 the Dominicans had formally accused the Jesuits of not complying with, or even violating, the Catholic liturgy in China. In this way the conflict over the so-called Chinese rites reached the highest Roman levels. The charges against the Jesuits are that they allowed the new converts not to attend mass on Sunday; they did not administer the holy oils to women in a state of death; they accepted the exercise of usury on the part of the newly converted. They accused the Jesuits of accepting idolatries and superstitions, establishing a long list of accusations to the effect that the worship of false gods and paganism. Missionaries of other orders complained that Japan did not there were crosses in Jesuit temples.
At this point, Palafox was convinced that he should intervene in the matter and sent his opinions both to King Felipe IV and to Pope Innocent X. In both memorials the prelate expresses four points which he considered dangerous. 1) Hide the crucifix of Christ and not preach the passion, 2) allow and even participate in gentile and superstitious rites, such as those dedicated to Confucius, 3) authorize a mixture of faith and idolatry by leading prayers to a concealed cross on the altar while apparently being worshiped pagan idols, 4) freeing new converts from religious norms (fasting, confession, mass).
Meanwhile, it should be noted that in China the Manchu invasion put the loyalties of the Company's fathers to the test, as already mentioned, since they had obtained a deal since the end of the 16th century.
preferential in the private circle of the Ming emperors and now they were faced with the dilemma of
get closer to the new power. At first they showed their neutrality to the new authorities, which
it served to save their life. Those who remained in Beijing successfully attempted a new approach, as was the case with Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1592-1666), who in a short time gained the trust of the young and curious Manchu emperor, who appointed him director of the Imperial Observatory. and from
Mathematics Court.
A different story was that of the Company's missionaries in the south, such as Alvaro de Semedo (1585-
1658), who remained close to the Ming resistance. The aforementioned Polish priest Michael
Boym (c. 1612-1659) traveled to Europe accompanied by relatives of the dethroned Ming Emperor, in order to
win the support of the kings and the Pope. He was unsuccessful in his mission as the winds of change indicated
from Rome, Madrid, Mexico City or Manila that it was preferable to assimilate the presence of the regime
Manchu. "Time was in favor of continuity."
I BELIEVE THAT ALL THIS INFORMATION CAN ADD EVEN MORE TO THIS THREAD OF KD: SH Archive - 1899-1901: Boxer Rebellion. What are they hiding?
Also here....
the siege against the Manchu regime throughout the southern coast of China throughout the 1950s
Thanks
Oracle: written in the forties of the seventeenth century.

I was just going to put: the siege against the Manchu regime along the entire southern coast of China throughout the 1650s. But the translator put that nine, I was talking about decades. The same happened in the previous one.

I apologize on that, because if it confuses.
Juan de Palafox y China
Written in the 1940s of the 17th century and, for the other, the bishop's participation in the so-called controversy of the rites of China, especially from of the letter written in 1649 to Pope Innocent X, in which he denounces the practices considered unorthodox evangelism used by Jesuit missionaries in East Asia.
A first part of this essay is dedicat.....

references please!

拜托 !
The reference is from a PDF, but you need to know Spanish. Anyway I leave you the link. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281221429_Juan_de_Palafox_y_China
 

SonofaBor

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It most interesting that the author claims the Ming (Chinese) held SE China until 1950. Chinese Nationalist forces (then camped on Formosa) and Chinese Communist forces were lobbing bombs at each other with the help of the Americans on the coast there during that decade. Makes me wonder: what was that all about? Were they finally, after a couple hundred years, taking out the Ming? Or the Ming spirits? Like the Communists, with implicit American consent, were (and still are) taking out the Tibetans and Uighurs and their spirits/knowledge-- those people known or argued by some to reside in the spiritual center of the plane?

Well.. what's new? More questions?

Back to the regularly scheduled dreary battle between good and evil...
 
Last edited:
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