The Church Inquisition did not persecute people, but counterfeit coins

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(Based on this Russian article, with some minor changes, first found here. Also available in our german forum)

p4t906bqsw371.jpg

The Catholic Church readily supports stories about the horrors of the Inquisition and even publicly repents to hide its main secret from the people - the pursuit of money.

What kind of witches did the Inqiusition really persecute?

The well-known Russian researcher Igor Grek, author of the "Logistic Theory of Civilization", was always amazed at the absurdity of the Inquisition's actions. Why would the Vatican burn thousands of women all over Europe on an obviously far-fetched pretext? There is no economic or political benefit to be derived from this, and for the Catholic Church such behavior was unacceptable even in the Dark Ages.

He found a sensational answer by deciphering the Inquisition's instructions for identifying "witches."

Inquisitors, in direct translation from Latin, were essentially investigators from the central apparatus of the Church who went on official business, investigated cases of forgery, gathered evidence against those guilty of forgery (the so-called "witch accomplices"), and handed them over to the local court for sentencing ... They themselves did not pass sentences or carry out executions.

Unlike modern investigators, who themselves do not have the right to give expert opinions (this is done by an appropriate expert), inquisitors simultaneously performed the role of investigators and were highly qualified experts for their time.

The books for inquisitors "on witches" contained sufficiently reasonable recommendations on investigative techniques and tactics in terms of the legislation of the time, and many recommendations have not lost their relevance even today.

But a fog of mystery was laid over the sections of investigative technique and expertise for the sake of secrecy, hence the mystical perception. The description of testing, examining, examining coins was slightly veiled, which worked perfectly, and now the mystical "examination of the witch" is taken "at face value" (I apologize for the unintentional pun).

Therefore, from the whole range of information about the "witch hunts", we will first look at one small but significant aspect - that of the "witch test" - that is, the testing of a suspect coin for authenticity.

When examining coins made of precious metals, in addition to the external signs of authenticity, it is extremely important to determine the fineness and weight of the precious metal. We will compare, where appropriate, the mystical interpretation of the "witch test" with the methods of establishing a sample of precious metals according to any "Assayer's Handbook".

Verbrennung-eines-Ketzers-Chodowiecki.jpg
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Images of alleged witch burnings

The Instructions for the Investigative Apparatus of the Holy See contain reasonable recommendations on investigative technique, entirely in line with the legislation of the time, and many of them have not lost their relevance even today. However, the sections dealing with the expert opinion to determine the authenticity of "witches" seem downright delusional. The Middle Ages were dark, of course, but not as idiotic as they might seem if you take everything written at face value. The real goals of the Inquisition were economic in nature. And the fight against heresy was in many ways a cover, just as "democratic values" are now for U.S. bombings around the world.

The truth in all its simplicity was revealed to Igor Grek when he saw that the Inquisition's instructions to identify the "witch" were completely consistent with the methods of determining the sample of precious metals according to the Assayer's Guide. And if you replace the word "witch" with "counterfeit coin" in the records of the Inquisition, then everything fits. Let's compare and then we will understand what was burned at the stake all over Europe.

Test with red-hot iron (iron test)

image-30265-1.jpg

Testing a witch with red-hot iron, relief from Bamberg Cathedral (Germany)
Misconception:

"The iron test is characteristic only of the early Middle Ages. It was necessary not to burn oneself, to step barefoot on hot plowshares or, without hurting the palm, to hold a red-hot iron rod for several minutes. The most amazing thing is that in the Middle Ages it was believed that God would protect the innocent in such a situation (and even gave legendary examples of it). In the era of mass witch hunts, this test was not applied. Doubts about its accuracy were raised by the authors of the Witch Hammer, whereupon it gradually faded into irrelevance."

How it really was:

The reference to "red-hot iron" means the observance of the temperature regime, the color of heat , i.e. the color of the glow of the metal depending on the heating temperature. For iron, a color change from dark cherry red to bright red means a temperature range from 700 to 900 °C.

Red-hot iron is good in that its color makes it possible to standardize the heating temperature of the coins studied, thus ensuring the stability of the results. In addition to melting, the color change of the metal was important.

From Brockhaus: "... Polybios, who lived in the 2nd cent. BC, mentions the testing of silver by fire, i.e. by changing its color by annealing. The same method is given by Pliny. In Russia, sampling of gold and silver was already known in the pre-Petrine era. The trade book says that Russian merchants tested gold "in fire ..."."

A coin of pure silver does not melt in this test, but "it will survive a few minutes without damage," since iron heated to a bright red color has a temperature of 830-900°С, and pure silver melts only at a temperature of 960°С. All alloys with silver content below 91 percent start melting at the same temperature - 779°С.

The conclusion was as follows: If the coin did not change color when heated with red-hot iron for several minutes, "did not burn", did not melt, then it is genuine, made of pure silver without impurities.

Pricking and scratch tests


image-30265-4 (1).jpg

In the old engraving shown, which depicts the scene of "testing the witch with needles", there are 15 needles on the table, the 16th in the expert's hand, from which it can be concluded that the silver coin was tested (16-lot scale)
The writing below the engraving translates from German to mean something like, "Testing with needles is one of the most important ways to test a witch." We pay special attention to the last word Hexenprobe, where the German word "Hexe" is now translated as "Witch". Is it just coincidental that Hexe means "hexadecimal" in German? Looks like the witches owned mostly silver....

Witch-pricking_Needles00.gif
image-30265-3.jpg

left: Testing needles. These are the ones they used to pierce the coin to check its authenticity. From them comes the story about the search for birthmarks on witches. right: A set of modern gold testing needles from the factory in Tula.
Assay needles in Western Europe appeared around the 14th century. Silver was divided into 16 lots, gold first by 12, then by 24, i.e. the number of assay needles required in a complete set depends on the gradations of the tests used.

Misconception:

In England and Germany, in the Netherlands and in France, a special way of searching for witches has become firmly established - the test with a needle. It is known that farmers brand their cattle. Why shouldn't the devil stigmatize his victims as a sign of vassalage? It seemed quite logical to people.

It was believed that the devil marks any witch possessed by him with his mark. So the judges were looking for this mark, called "witch mark". To find it, the accused had her head and body shaved. If only suspicious spots on the skin had to be found, e.g. age spots or liver spots, the executioner pricked them with a needle.

Of course, this stigma can be invisible, but that is why there are specialists to find the "sign of the devil" even under the immaculately smooth skin. The place where the devil held his claw becomes insensitive to pain and does not bleed when injected. If the suspect did not feel pain or bleed, it was considered proven that it was indeed a "witch mark."


What it was really like:

In the "Assayer's Guide," this mystical interpretation corresponds to the ancient method, still widely used today, of using assay needles to determine the sample of objects made of precious metals. They consist of gold, silver and copper of a certain composition, i.e. they are reference samples of the precious metal sample.

The simplest application of assay needles is scratching the surface of the test object. The higher quality alloy needle is softer and leaves no marks. Assay needles are made of gold and copper (or silver and copper) of a certain composition, i.e. they are reference samples of a precious metal sample.

Therefore, the mystical expressions "felt no pain" and "came out no blood" mean that the assay needle of the sample leaves no scratch. This means that the alloy of the test coin is harder due to the higher content of other metals.

xsmrmrpysw371.jpg

The direct heir of the "Inquisitio Haereticae Pravitatis Sanctum Officium", i.e. the Inquisition, is today the "Institute for the Works of Religion". This is the scientific name of the Vatican Bank, where they also hunt for "witches

Tear Test​


Misconception:

The "tear test" was also considered an infallible means of identifying a witch. In the "Witchhammer," (Malleus Maleficarum) this test was recommended to judges as particularly reliable. It was believed that witches could not shed tears: A woman who did not cry even under torture was most likely a witch.

How it really was:

In the assayer's manual, this is called a "drop test," "drop method," or "wet test," meaning it involves a sample of a precious metal with special reagents.

"A drop of reagent is applied to the coin and based on the color of the stain, the gold content is inferred. The color of the reaction products, as it is said in a manual on jewelry, the assayer compares only "with his own feeling," so that the error can reach 30 or more sample units."

"Another method widely used today in test inspection work is the use of a "test stone," which is an indicator method whose results depend largely on the experience and qualifications of the tester. This method is based on color comparison. Strips are applied to the "test stone" (special siliceous slate) using the test specimen and test needles made of reference alloys. They are exposed to test reagents. In this case, on some microsections of the strips the metal dissolves and on others the assay reagent precipitates. Thus, if such a reagent is a solution of chlorine-hydrochloric acid (chlorine gold), finely dispersed brown gold will precipitate. Depending on the area ratio of the ground surfaces of gold, silver and copper in the alloy, the corrosion currents change, i.e. the amount of deposited metal and the color intensity of the band of this alloy. When comparing the color at the reaction sites between the bands and the reagents, it is concluded that the alloy of the product of such and such assay needle is similar."

"There is also a "wet test" - a test of the silver content in the alloy, which consists of separating silver from a nitric acid solution with a titrated solution of sodium chloride. This method was probably adopted by the Arabs and spread to Europe in the 13th century."

Probably the "tear sample" in the history of witchcraft refers to the "drip method" for determining coins.

Weighing Test​



0w9qvs21tw371.jpg

Weighing test of a 19th century witch on the scales in Oudewater (which incidentally houses the Witch Museum).

Misconception:

"Much more humane was the weighing test. Thus, in the Dutch town of Oudewater, anyone heavier than a certain limit was acquitted and even given a certificate confirming innocence of witchcraft. The percentage of those who were exposed was vanishingly small. Of course, the subjects were forced to strip down to their shirts and searched for hidden weights."

"In addition to the traditional water test, the suspects were weighed. Weighed so often that even King Charles V granted the city of Oudewater the right, as a privilege, to convert the city scales into special scales for witches. It was used continuously until 1693."

"Charles V donated a scale to the town of Oudewater for testing witches and defined a 50 kg barrier between Satan's servants and honest Christians."


How it really was:

Well, there is a "witch scale" in the Dutch town of Oudewater with the service of weighing women and issuing a "certificate," and the lower limit is 49.5 kg. Well, would tourists be as happy to go to the museum if it was still called as it used to be - simply "Oudewater scale", and there they talked not about witchcraft but about the history of measurement, the difficult way of standardization and unification, certification of weights and measures?

In the case of the Oudewater scales, the term "witch" also refers to trade weights. They were tested, branded and provided with a certificate of conformity. There was no fundamental difference between coins and weights, because coins, like copper coins in the USSR, were "counted" by weighing: one kopek is one gram, and five kopeks are five grams.


By the way, in the manuals of the inquisitors "witch" was called by the term "malefiz", which literally means "bad income". A weight too light, as well as a coin too light, is definitely malefiz. (Compare with the English word beneficence- good income; also fiscal).

If we take into account that in fact, instead of the lady, gold was weighed, then, of course, the "witch" should not weigh less than indicated. Otherwise, the coin will be recognized as a fake or rather a "witch".

Water Test​


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image-30265-12.jpg

The engravings show that the tested "women" were supposedly lowered into the water. The "witch" floated on the water, and the honest woman sank
Misconception:

"In many witch trials, one of the tasks of the investigations was to find certain signs by which witches could be easily recognized. One of the most popular tests was the "water test" (also called "bathing witch"). For this purpose, the executioner tied the arms and legs of the naked woman tightly, tied her body with a rope and pushed her into the water. If she remained on the surface of the water - and this happened in the majority of cases - then she was a witch because water, the element of purity, did not accept her. Or a witch bath was performed, that is, the woman was drowned ... and if her body returned to the surface of the water after drowning, it means that the water did not accept her - so she is a witch."

How it really was:

Even if you don't get into the physics, the conventional wisdom suffers from a lack of logic: if a woman thrown into the water floats to the top, then she is a witch and must be killed, but if she dies in the process (because she drowns), she isn't a witch. This is completely irrational and lacks any logic.

The reality is much more interesting: "water test" refers to the method of hydrostatic weighing, an amazingly elegant method of comparing the specific gravity of substances. Weighing on a balance with the same arm - "weighing test" - can only determine the equality of the weight of the tested coin with the reference coin. However, if these coins suspended on the balance beam are lowered into water, the balance is disturbed by impurities of lighter metals when the density of the test coin is lower, and the "damaged" "witch" coin floats up, the reference coin sinks.

For higher sensitivity, it is necessary that the coins do not lie on the balance, but are simply tied to the rocker arms with the thinnest possible thread. For this reason, all sources on witches specifically mention that they must be tied crosswise "with the right hand to the left leg and vice versa." A special mention of undressing a witch before the test means cleaning from dirt, foreign layers.

The sensitivity of this method is also extremely high because such a test of a precious metal sample is non-destructive. Unlike testing needles and drop samples. It has been adopted by museums, including the Hermitage, only with more sophisticated equipment, of course.


2arl0at5tw371.jpg

Map of the intensity of witch hunts in Europe in the XVI century (according to modern official documents). As we can see, the most active persecution of witches was in Western Germany, Switzerland and France - the most developed regions. Well, let's compare at least Italy: in the progressive north it is much more active than in the backward agricultural south. If it were the backwardness in people's thinking, then it would look exactly the opposite.

"Money is sacred"​


Now that one knows the true state of affairs, one can comprehend with understanding the old illustrations which the uneducated people have always mistaken for historical chronicles. For example, in the early 19th century, Europeans actually threw women into the water to test them for witchcraft, for which they were justly punished by the authorities.

According to Igor Grek, the Inquisition was a medieval analogue to Interpol, whose main task was to fight counterfeiters. Finally, for many centuries the Pope was an absolutist ruling European monarch, appointing kings and regulating the entire foreign and domestic policy of the continent. Financial control was one of the top priorities. We see this in the example of today's European Union.

The Holy Inquisition burned "witches" - but they were not women, they were counterfeit money!

Yes, and people were burned too. The secular authorities had to deal with "criminals", some of whom were convicted of making counterfeits and handed over to the courts by the Inquisition. But all their "witchcraft" consisted only in trying to defraud the Vatican financially, that is, to tamper with "sacred" things. And in this case the Pope is none other than the Godfather.
 

fabiorem

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Excellent article. I always found the witch hunts suspicious, specially when we put it side-by-side with the orgies that happened inside the church. So they burned women doing the same scandalous acts they did inside the church? It don't make any sense.
Cities in the middle ages were filled with hookers and brothels, there was even sacred prostitution. It was only the reformation which put some order into the cloisters. The inquisition predates the reformation.
Also, the cognate for witch in portuguese, "bruxa", is the name of the rope used to lighten a oil lamp. So "burn the witch" was actually light the oil, to burn the metal.
 

usselo

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(Based on this Russian article, with some minor changes, first found here. Also available in our german forum)
the Inquisition was a medieval analogue to Interpol, whose main task was to fight counterfeiters. Finally, for many centuries the Pope was an absolutist ruling European monarch, appointing kings and regulating the entire foreign and domestic policy of the continent. Financial control was one of the top priorities. We see this in the example of today's European Union.​

The Holy Inquisition burned "witches" - but they were not women, they were counterfeit money!
Yes, and people were burned too. The secular authorities had to deal with "criminals", some of whom were convicted of making counterfeits and handed over to the courts by the Inquisition. But all their "witchcraft" consisted only in trying to defraud the Vatican financially, that is, to tamper with "sacred" things. And in this case the Pope is none other than the Godfather.
Great to see more Russian material appearing in a good translation.

In An Account Of The Religious Houses Formerly Situated on the Eastern Side of the River Witham, Rev George Oliver references abbeys and monasteries counterfeiting coins. Citing the first example that came to hand:

In Chapter V - Account of Tupholme Abbey, Oliver writes:

a more serious charge was made, on another occasion, against one of its Priors. He was accused of forgery, and counter feiting the current coin of the realm ; 8 with which he purchased corn and wine, and disposed of them at a considerable profit

In footnote 8 of that chapter:
In the Notices des MSS. are more proofs of coining.

In Chapter XI - The Abbey of Tupholm and the Convent of Stixwold dissolved:

the commissioners found no difficulty in procuring sufficient evidence for its condemnation ; for in this house were unfortunately discovered materials for coining and forgery ; the existence of which, notwithstanding it was alleged that they had been introduced by a former abbot, and had not been used for many years, constituted a heavy charge against the establishment

For context, Oliver was showing that what we today call 'monasticism' was a racket disguised as Christian religion, at that time called 'monarchism'. Presumably the ecclesiastical remnant was re-branded to 'monasticism' at some later time and today's blue blood/royalty is perhaps a remnant of the original 'monarchism'.

Oliver also refers - without detail - to the 'Inquisition' that tried to investigate these and many other crimes being run out of these institutions.
 
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EUAFU

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Since the Enlightenment (the true dark age for real history knowledge), they've plagued everyone's mind with so many fables about the Inquisition that this article hit me like a blow for not believing all the pathetic hype about hunting for witches and yes for not imagining that it was about weights and measures.
Excellent post.
 
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Starman

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(Based on this Russian article, with some minor changes, first found here. Also available in our german forum)

View attachment 11641
The Catholic Church readily supports stories about the horrors of the Inquisition and even publicly repents to hide its main secret from the people - the pursuit of money.

What kind of witches did the Inqiusition really persecute?

The well-known Russian researcher Igor Grek, author of the "Logistic Theory of Civilization", was always amazed at the absurdity of the Inquisition's actions. Why would the Vatican burn thousands of women all over Europe on an obviously far-fetched pretext? There is no economic or political benefit to be derived from this, and for the Catholic Church such behavior was unacceptable even in the Dark Ages.

He found a sensational answer by deciphering the Inquisition's instructions for identifying "witches."

Inquisitors, in direct translation from Latin, were essentially investigators from the central apparatus of the Church who went on official business, investigated cases of forgery, gathered evidence against those guilty of forgery (the so-called "witch accomplices"), and handed them over to the local court for sentencing ... They themselves did not pass sentences or carry out executions.

Unlike modern investigators, who themselves do not have the right to give expert opinions (this is done by an appropriate expert), inquisitors simultaneously performed the role of investigators and were highly qualified experts for their time.

The books for inquisitors "on witches" contained sufficiently reasonable recommendations on investigative techniques and tactics in terms of the legislation of the time, and many recommendations have not lost their relevance even today.

But a fog of mystery was laid over the sections of investigative technique and expertise for the sake of secrecy, hence the mystical perception. The description of testing, examining, examining coins was slightly veiled, which worked perfectly, and now the mystical "examination of the witch" is taken "at face value" (I apologize for the unintentional pun).

Therefore, from the whole range of information about the "witch hunts", we will first look at one small but significant aspect - that of the "witch test" - that is, the testing of a suspect coin for authenticity.

When examining coins made of precious metals, in addition to the external signs of authenticity, it is extremely important to determine the fineness and weight of the precious metal. We will compare, where appropriate, the mystical interpretation of the "witch test" with the methods of establishing a sample of precious metals according to any "Assayer's Handbook".


The Instructions for the Investigative Apparatus of the Holy See contain reasonable recommendations on investigative technique, entirely in line with the legislation of the time, and many of them have not lost their relevance even today. However, the sections dealing with the expert opinion to determine the authenticity of "witches" seem downright delusional. The Middle Ages were dark, of course, but not as idiotic as they might seem if you take everything written at face value. The real goals of the Inquisition were economic in nature. And the fight against heresy was in many ways a cover, just as "democratic values" are now for U.S. bombings around the world.

The truth in all its simplicity was revealed to Igor Grek when he saw that the Inquisition's instructions to identify the "witch" were completely consistent with the methods of determining the sample of precious metals according to the Assayer's Guide. And if you replace the word "witch" with "counterfeit coin" in the records of the Inquisition, then everything fits. Let's compare and then we will understand what was burned at the stake all over Europe.

Test with red-hot iron (iron test)

View attachment 11637
Testing a witch with red-hot iron, relief from Bamberg Cathedral (Germany)
Misconception:

"The iron test is characteristic only of the early Middle Ages. It was necessary not to burn oneself, to step barefoot on hot plowshares or, without hurting the palm, to hold a red-hot iron rod for several minutes. The most amazing thing is that in the Middle Ages it was believed that God would protect the innocent in such a situation (and even gave legendary examples of it). In the era of mass witch hunts, this test was not applied. Doubts about its accuracy were raised by the authors of the Witch Hammer, whereupon it gradually faded into irrelevance."

How it really was:

The reference to "red-hot iron" means the observance of the temperature regime, the color of heat , i.e. the color of the glow of the metal depending on the heating temperature. For iron, a color change from dark cherry red to bright red means a temperature range from 700 to 900 °C.

Red-hot iron is good in that its color makes it possible to standardize the heating temperature of the coins studied, thus ensuring the stability of the results. In addition to melting, the color change of the metal was important.

From Brockhaus: "... Polybios, who lived in the 2nd cent. BC, mentions the testing of silver by fire, i.e. by changing its color by annealing. The same method is given by Pliny. In Russia, sampling of gold and silver was already known in the pre-Petrine era. The trade book says that Russian merchants tested gold "in fire ..."."

A coin of pure silver does not melt in this test, but "it will survive a few minutes without damage," since iron heated to a bright red color has a temperature of 830-900°С, and pure silver melts only at a temperature of 960°С. All alloys with silver content below 91 percent start melting at the same temperature - 779°С.

The conclusion was as follows: If the coin did not change color when heated with red-hot iron for several minutes, "did not burn", did not melt, then it is genuine, made of pure silver without impurities.

Pricking and scratch tests


View attachment 11636
In the old engraving shown, which depicts the scene of "testing the witch with needles", there are 15 needles on the table, the 16th in the expert's hand, from which it can be concluded that the silver coin was tested (16-lot scale)
The writing below the engraving translates from German to mean something like, "Testing with needles is one of the most important ways to test a witch." We pay special attention to the last word Hexenprobe, where the German word "Hexe" is now translated as "Witch". Is it just coincidental that Hexe means "hexadecimal" in German? Looks like the witches owned mostly silver....

View attachment 11635 View attachment 11634
left: Testing needles. These are the ones they used to pierce the coin to check its authenticity. From them comes the story about the search for birthmarks on witches. right: A set of modern gold testing needles from the factory in Tula.
Assay needles in Western Europe appeared around the 14th century. Silver was divided into 16 lots, gold first by 12, then by 24, i.e. the number of assay needles required in a complete set depends on the gradations of the tests used.

Misconception:

In England and Germany, in the Netherlands and in France, a special way of searching for witches has become firmly established - the test with a needle. It is known that farmers brand their cattle. Why shouldn't the devil stigmatize his victims as a sign of vassalage? It seemed quite logical to people.

It was believed that the devil marks any witch possessed by him with his mark. So the judges were looking for this mark, called "witch mark". To find it, the accused had her head and body shaved. If only suspicious spots on the skin had to be found, e.g. age spots or liver spots, the executioner pricked them with a needle.

Of course, this stigma can be invisible, but that is why there are specialists to find the "sign of the devil" even under the immaculately smooth skin. The place where the devil held his claw becomes insensitive to pain and does not bleed when injected. If the suspect did not feel pain or bleed, it was considered proven that it was indeed a "witch mark."


What it was really like:

In the "Assayer's Guide," this mystical interpretation corresponds to the ancient method, still widely used today, of using assay needles to determine the sample of objects made of precious metals. They consist of gold, silver and copper of a certain composition, i.e. they are reference samples of the precious metal sample.

The simplest application of assay needles is scratching the surface of the test object. The higher quality alloy needle is softer and leaves no marks. Assay needles are made of gold and copper (or silver and copper) of a certain composition, i.e. they are reference samples of a precious metal sample.

Therefore, the mystical expressions "felt no pain" and "came out no blood" mean that the assay needle of the sample leaves no scratch. This means that the alloy of the test coin is harder due to the higher content of other metals.

View attachment 11633
The direct heir of the "Inquisitio Haereticae Pravitatis Sanctum Officium", i.e. the Inquisition, is today the "Institute for the Works of Religion". This is the scientific name of the Vatican Bank, where they also hunt for "witches

Tear Test​


Misconception:

The "tear test" was also considered an infallible means of identifying a witch. In the "Witchhammer," (Malleus Maleficarum) this test was recommended to judges as particularly reliable. It was believed that witches could not shed tears: A woman who did not cry even under torture was most likely a witch.

How it really was:

In the assayer's manual, this is called a "drop test," "drop method," or "wet test," meaning it involves a sample of a precious metal with special reagents.

"A drop of reagent is applied to the coin and based on the color of the stain, the gold content is inferred. The color of the reaction products, as it is said in a manual on jewelry, the assayer compares only "with his own feeling," so that the error can reach 30 or more sample units."

"Another method widely used today in test inspection work is the use of a "test stone," which is an indicator method whose results depend largely on the experience and qualifications of the tester. This method is based on color comparison. Strips are applied to the "test stone" (special siliceous slate) using the test specimen and test needles made of reference alloys. They are exposed to test reagents. In this case, on some microsections of the strips the metal dissolves and on others the assay reagent precipitates. Thus, if such a reagent is a solution of chlorine-hydrochloric acid (chlorine gold), finely dispersed brown gold will precipitate. Depending on the area ratio of the ground surfaces of gold, silver and copper in the alloy, the corrosion currents change, i.e. the amount of deposited metal and the color intensity of the band of this alloy. When comparing the color at the reaction sites between the bands and the reagents, it is concluded that the alloy of the product of such and such assay needle is similar."

"There is also a "wet test" - a test of the silver content in the alloy, which consists of separating silver from a nitric acid solution with a titrated solution of sodium chloride. This method was probably adopted by the Arabs and spread to Europe in the 13th century."

Probably the "tear sample" in the history of witchcraft refers to the "drip method" for determining coins.

Weighing Test​



View attachment 11632
Weighing test of a 19th century witch on the scales in Oudewater (which incidentally houses the Witch Museum).

Misconception:

"Much more humane was the weighing test. Thus, in the Dutch town of Oudewater, anyone heavier than a certain limit was acquitted and even given a certificate confirming innocence of witchcraft. The percentage of those who were exposed was vanishingly small. Of course, the subjects were forced to strip down to their shirts and searched for hidden weights."

"In addition to the traditional water test, the suspects were weighed. Weighed so often that even King Charles V granted the city of Oudewater the right, as a privilege, to convert the city scales into special scales for witches. It was used continuously until 1693."

"Charles V donated a scale to the town of Oudewater for testing witches and defined a 50 kg barrier between Satan's servants and honest Christians."


How it really was:

Well, there is a "witch scale" in the Dutch town of Oudewater with the service of weighing women and issuing a "certificate," and the lower limit is 49.5 kg. Well, would tourists be as happy to go to the museum if it was still called as it used to be - simply "Oudewater scale", and there they talked not about witchcraft but about the history of measurement, the difficult way of standardization and unification, certification of weights and measures?

In the case of the Oudewater scales, the term "witch" also refers to trade weights. They were tested, branded and provided with a certificate of conformity. There was no fundamental difference between coins and weights, because coins, like copper coins in the USSR, were "counted" by weighing: one kopek is one gram, and five kopeks are five grams.


By the way, in the manuals of the inquisitors "witch" was called by the term "malefiz", which literally means "bad income". A weight too light, as well as a coin too light, is definitely malefiz. (Compare with the English word beneficence- good income; also fiscal).

If we take into account that in fact, instead of the lady, gold was weighed, then, of course, the "witch" should not weigh less than indicated. Otherwise, the coin will be recognized as a fake or rather a "witch".

Water Test​


View attachment 11631 View attachment 11630
The engravings show that the tested "women" were supposedly lowered into the water in pairs. The "witch" floated on the water, and the honest woman sank
Misconception:

"In many witch trials, one of the tasks of the investigations was to find certain signs by which witches could be easily recognized. One of the most popular tests was the "water test" (also called "bathing witch"). For this purpose, the executioner tied the arms and legs of the naked woman tightly, tied her body with a rope and pushed her into the water. If she remained on the surface of the water - and this happened in the majority of cases - then she was a witch because water, the element of purity, did not accept her. Or a witch bath was performed, that is, the woman was drowned ... and if her body returned to the surface of the water after drowning, it means that the water did not accept her - so she is a witch."

How it really was:

Even if you don't get into the physics, the conventional wisdom suffers from a lack of logic: if a woman thrown into the water floats to the top, then she is a witch and must be killed, but if she dies in the process (because she drowns), she isn't a witch. This is completely irrational and lacks any logic.

The reality is much more interesting: "water test" refers to the method of hydrostatic weighing, an amazingly elegant method of comparing the specific gravity of substances. Weighing on a balance with the same arm - "weighing test" - can only determine the equality of the weight of the tested coin with the reference coin. However, if these coins suspended on the balance beam are lowered into water, the balance is disturbed by impurities of lighter metals when the density of the test coin is lower, and the "damaged" "witch" coin floats up, the reference coin sinks.

For higher sensitivity, it is necessary that the coins do not lie on the balance, but are simply tied to the rocker arms with the thinnest possible thread. For this reason, all sources on witches specifically mention that they must be tied crosswise "with the right hand to the left leg and vice versa." A special mention of undressing a witch before the test means cleaning from dirt, foreign layers.

The sensitivity of this method is also extremely high because such a test of a precious metal sample is non-destructive. Unlike testing needles and drop samples. It has been adopted by museums, including the Hermitage, only with more sophisticated equipment, of course.


View attachment 11629
Map of the intensity of witch hunts in Europe in the XVI century (according to modern official documents). As we can see, the most active persecution of witches was in Western Germany, Switzerland and France - the most developed regions. Well, let's compare at least Italy: in the progressive north it is much more active than in the backward agricultural south. If it were the backwardness in people's thinking, then it would look exactly the opposite.

"Money is sacred"​


Now that one knows the true state of affairs, one can comprehend with understanding the old illustrations which the uneducated people have always mistaken for historical chronicles. For example, in the early 19th century, Europeans actually threw women into the water to test them for witchcraft, for which they were justly punished by the authorities.

According to Igor Grek, the Inquisition was a medieval analogue to Interpol, whose main task was to fight counterfeiters. Finally, for many centuries the Pope was an absolutist ruling European monarch, appointing kings and regulating the entire foreign and domestic policy of the continent. Financial control was one of the top priorities. We see this in the example of today's European Union.

The Holy Inquisition burned "witches" - but they were not women, they were counterfeit money!

Yes, and people were burned too. The secular authorities had to deal with "criminals", some of whom were convicted of making counterfeits and handed over to the courts by the Inquisition. But all their "witchcraft" consisted only in trying to defraud the Vatican financially, that is, to tamper with "sacred" things. And in this case the Pope is none other than the Godfather.

Wow, great post, important information no doubt!

I wonder why the great effort to hide the story of counterfeiting behind the story of witches?? Why put forth a false, macabre story of subjugating women to all sorts of tests? Isn't that a sordid tale the church would rather not be associated with unless absolutely necessary? Is it to divert attention from the church being the money purveyors, which is antithetical to Scripture? Did the church get a double good result by putting fear in the hearts of a future populace while obscuring their past nefarious role in society?

This is a good example of how our world and its narrative is formed by lies from "those most high." Think of the effort over time to get artists to create all those engravings and paintings to tell this false narrative, and to scrub the real one. It makes it easier to understand that all our history is a fabrication, especially the literary translations supposedly handed down from the ancient world.
 

air_dance

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This map impressed me.
2arl0at5tw371.jpg

An amazing map supporting my thesis Egypt = Gypsis (here). Roman law and Romani people (gypsies).
Lex Duodecim Tabularum. (450 BC) (slavery) (Italy) vs Codex Justinianus (529 AD) = Freedom = Balkan.
The Holy Roman Empire was established under Roman Balkan law.
In the beginning, they were deceived by Slave (Italian) Roman law and paid the price for it.
Roman law that works in Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece. During the Holy Roman Empire it spread to America. The road is: Balkans - Germany - USA. The price of being free was paid by the Germans. But the highest price was paid in the Balkans. After all, today in the 21st century, we all enjoy Roman Balkan law. We will pay the price in the future to keep the freedom.
 
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dreamtime

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Wow, great post, important information no doubt!

I wonder why the great effort to hide the story of counterfeiting behind the story of witches?? Why put forth a false, macabre story of subjugating women to all sorts of tests? Isn't that a sordid tale the church would rather not be associated with unless absolutely necessary? Is it to divert attention from the church being the money purveyors, which is antithetical to Scripture? Did the church get a double good result by putting fear in the hearts of a future populace while obscuring their past nefarious role in society?

This is a good example of how our world and its narrative is formed by lies from "those most high." Think of the effort over time to get artists to create all those engravings and paintings to tell this false narrative, and to scrub the real one. It makes it easier to understand that all our history is a fabrication, especially the literary translations supposedly handed down from the ancient world.

One possibility is that analogies were used by our ancestors to keep certain secrets. It also seems to be common in the bible - when you look at how they protrayed celestial alignments.

Maybe the human psyche worked a bit different back then - people weren't able to understand some concepts if they weren't translated to everyday topics (animals, humans, etc.). We tend to focus on abstract logic nowadays, but this was not always so. Maybe people weren't able to think in such an abstract way and always needed a picture of something concrete in their mind to get it.

So maybe in the beginning they just associated coins with women, just like star constellations were associated with complicated metaphors like horses or chariots. And over time the meaning got forgotten. I bet it would have also been a benefit to the inquisition if the common low level criminal did not know all the details, so they wrote their books in a slightly encrypted way. If forgers got access to the written material, it would still be difficult for them to back-engineer the process to produce better counterfeit coins.

Rev. 4:6-7, “In the center, around the throne, were four living creatures, and they were covered with eyes, in front and in back. The first living creature was like a lion, the second was like an ox, the third had a face like a man, the fourth was like a flying eagle.” (NIV).

The verse above reports on the constellations of Leo, Taurus, Sagittarius, and Pegasus. The lion is Leo, the ox is Taurus, the animal with a face like a man is Sagitarrius, and animal like a flying eagle is Pegasus. Leo represents where the sun is before autumn, Taurus represents where the sun is before summer, Sagittarius is where the sun is before winter, and Pegasus is where the sun is before spring.

Using Astronomy to Date the Book of Revelation
 

Math & Physics

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associated coins with women
"A half truth can be more detrimental than a whole lie." Ben Franklin
It's great to see the issue addressed, and a clearer focus as to where the exaggerations come from.
Just like the movie Titanic, you're going to find it's about Child Brides, Grooming, Human Trafficking, 'Dark Arts', not Voo Doo but VD. (as indicated by the needle test)
'History', the slave ships stopped in the Caribbean to pick up sugar and rum
Reality, 'East India Co' ran sugar plantations to break the new recruits, and those who didn't go along, didn't see harbor in Connecticut. Those who did make it through the Human Trafficking ring, made it to Dixieland.

'History', Protestants fled England for the new world b/c of 'religious differences'.
Reality, The Roman Catholic Church controlled the 'legal system', creating witch TRIALS, a system used for the witches' entertainment. (a break-up court, not unlike Dom V standards today) So subjective, England ended them in 1736, even influencing the Bill of Rights. View: https://youtu.be/1rHSu2oDZXE?t=2767

Witch Hunting, was a culling of degenerates, as the convenience of antibiotics had not been developed at the time. In short: A Defense of Procreation
Sailors were known to insert 'hot wire' into the urethra, in hopes of curing 'the drips'.
You can only imagine how it would feel if a sailor groomed your daughter, only to make her sterile. She could even sterilize the entire town.
Tales of the Brothers Grimm, were chalked up as Fairy Tales, when they were warnings to the children.
Old women were more likely to be destitute, and if her tribe had the right connections, she had no problems.
Harvest time was known for disappearing children.

Females tend to have a higher value to Human Traffickers, or can be 'bought' for coin, maybe money was created for women?

Great opener though.
 

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There was never much of an Inquisition in England:

"When Mary Tudor took the throne, she instituted her own, smaller inquisition in her attempts to return her people to the Catholic faith. Yet while the Spanish Inquisition was a secretive organization, the trials and arrests in England were far more public and accessible. Much of the methodology and questioning processes were similar, yet Mary’s Inquisition met great resistance and died with her after only a few years." (The Unsuccessful Inquisition in Tudor England, Sarah J. Dell)

From the reign of Henry VIII (1491 – 1547,) England was under no obligations to the Holy See whatsoever with regard to counterfeiting or 'coining' as it was known.

Instead, England had Matthew Hopkins, 'The Witchfinder General', amongst others:

"Methods of investigating witchcraft heavily drew inspiration from the Daemonologie of King James, which was directly cited in Hopkins' The Discovery of Witches. Although torture was nominally unlawful in England, Hopkins often used techniques such as sleep deprivation to extract confessions from his victims. He would also cut the arm of the accused with a blunt knife, and if she did not bleed, she was said to be a witch. Another of his methods was the swimming test, based on the idea that as witches had renounced their baptism, water would reject them. Suspects were tied to a chair and thrown into water: all those who "swam" (floated) were considered to be witches. Hopkins was warned against the use of "swimming" without receiving the victim's permission first. This led to the legal abandonment of the test by the end of 1645.

"Hopkins and his assistants also looked for the Devil's mark. This was a mark that all witches or sorcerers were thought to possess that was said to be dead to all feeling and would not bleed – although it was sometimes a mole, birthmark or an extra nipple or breast. If the suspected witch had no such visible marks invisible ones could be discovered by pricking. Therefore, "witch prickers" were employed, who pricked the accused with knives and special needles looking for such marks, normally after the suspect had been shaved of all body hair. It was believed that the witch's familiar, an animal such as a cat or dog, would drink the witch's blood from the mark, as a baby drinks milk from the nipple...

"In Norfolk both Hopkins and Stearne were questioned by justices of the assizes about the torturing and fees. Hopkins was asked if methods of investigation did not make the finders themselves witches, and if with all his knowledge did he not also have a secret, or had used "unlawful courses of torture". By the time this court session resumed in 1647 Stearne and Hopkins had retired..."
(Source)

Hopkins' book, 'The Discovery of Witches', was published in 1647 and the practices outlined were recommended in law books. During the year following publication the New England witch-hunts began in the American colonies using Hopkins' methods. These led to the now infamous Salem Witch Trials.


Furthermore:

"‘Coining’ consists mainly of making counterfeit coins and ‘clipping’ or filing metal from the edges of silver coins (or, less often, gold coins) for re-use, a practice going back to medieval times. During the seventeenth century, an acute shortage of small change stimulated an explosion in coining. This was generally beneficial to commercial trade, and aroused little hostility in the community. Coining and counterfeiting were not sins recognized by the Bible, and unlike murder, theft, adultery and other acknowledged crimes, they had no ostensible victims. However, the claim by some modern historians that coiners were fully approved of by ordinary people is countered by the fact that coiners operated in utmost secrecy, to avoid being known as coiners to the rest of their community." (Source)

This practice had previously led to all the Jews of England being subjected to arrest and search of their homes on suspicion of coin clipping and counterfeiting on November 17, 1278.
 

kd-755

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It makes even more sense when you consider the word "witch" gave origin to the word "switch".
Really?
How do you know this was the case?
Are you older than you are letting on?
And what about twitch and which?
Where do they fit in?
 

fabiorem

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Really?
How do you know this was the case?


I don't. I'm just speculating, as these words are very similar.
I can speculate any time I want, and anywhere I want, for whatever reason.
If you are seething, please consider using the ignore button.
 
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Bitbybit

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Interesting.
witchcraft = alchemy = making gold and silver from nothing...

I quick-googled coin and witches.

The article linked below tells the story that if you got the right coins, you didnt get any problems..

"...the well-circulated notion that some Massachusetts silver coins were used as talismans to ward off witches. "

"...Pine Tree Shilling, which was bent, to ward off the powers of witches. Something about the bent silver coin would dispel the forces of evil and protect the bearer. "


= The Igor explanation would probably be that carrying a bent shilling proves its a real silver coin (not counterfeit coin)

A Coin a Day Keeps the Witches Away
200 people in one village were accused of witchcraft, 19 of them was sentenced to death by hanging (=treated as any normal criminal)

A bent coin could mean it was pressed with a rolling rocker press: (perhaps the official production method, or not?)
https://coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/FAQ/witchpieces.html
 

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died with her
I can concede the point that counterfeit coin would be a problem around brothels. As would be 'the great mead bust', ergot, White Rabbit, weed, ect...can we agree they where heavily associated with the Black Market? Todays Smurf was yesterdays Sorcerer (source er) View: https://youtu.be/HOdYGEuoXf8

Cast silver/gold would be bend w/o break fractures. Though silver alloyed with 15% copper yields sterling silver, ie flatware.
Lead or other alloys would crack, even stone can be cast.
 

Bitbybit

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I was checking swedish history about witches, at first glance it seems to disprove the thread. But just after a closer inspection, the swedish events seems more related to sexual perversion and some insanity among woman and children, possibly after years of heavy losses in war.(less men at home?) combined with viral hearsay and fear.

There are a couple main events in swedish history that in mainstream are connected to "witchhunt". (A 9 year period, 1668-1676)
But it seems to me most of the time the transcriptions noted in the 1800s texts about this mostly is very abstract and more translated to "sorcery/obsession/going with satan..etc" The magic events recalled in the texts seems to be secondary or nonexistent.
In the two most famous cases, all of the executed were females.. except one male at each site. (!)
The women were accused of leaving their homes, going to this specific place. (blåkulla)

More strange:
When this "sorcery" came to the capitol city, it was introduced by a 12 year old boy from another town, whos mother already was accused of prostitution and sorcery etc.
The boy is said to have been boasting to the new friends about "having been socializing with satan" for several years already. Strange stories seems at this time to spin to existance in the community. One 15 year old girl said she had been married twice at Blåkulla, the man was very handsome, but when she confessed the man turned out to be just a broomstick (!). She had gave birth through her nose, what then jumped as frogs on the floor...." A 14 year old boy had seen one of the accused women at blåkulla imitate a candelabre with her head down and feet up and a light stick in the ass."
But later after investigation the children confessed, they had never been at some Blåkulla. They claimed they were forced to lie for not to be killed.
And the children had also been given money to make them lie about specific women, often by other women. The spiral of accusations had gone crazy. Eventually at least 3 women were sentenced to death, accused of faking accusations against other women, some more women were sentenced to punishments.
 

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I hope you're right. But the Papal Bull, Summis desiderantes affectibus, which paved the way for the, Malleus Maleficarum, was predicated on the incubus/succubus attack. Now dream paralysis may be a physical phenomenon but for people who have experienced such attacks, as I did for many years, it is much more. Ghastly doesn't begin to describe the terror even if it's not an interdimensional assault by the vilest of vile entities, which it seems, but a dream state manifestation of a less than noble personal quality. A quality that, in my case, has nothing to do with long unused coinage, but more likely some type of repressed sexual urge. Which puts my upbringing in the Catholic (Dominican parish - would you believe) religion well into the frame by way of an instilled fear of women and her sexuality. This is confirmed by Pope Innocent the whatever (it gets tiring) also targeting midwives in his bull. No doubt in accord with Tertullian's vile rantings about women that aren't worth quoting or citing. Stiil, it's no surprise - the left, patriarchal, brain is the rock this world is built on. And tithing was always off the gross not the net.
 

Will Scarlet

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I don't. I'm just speculating, as these words are very similar.
I can speculate any time I want, and anywhere I want, for whatever reason.
If you are seething, please consider using the ignore button.

You made a statement that gave no indication of speculation. People can disagree with you any time they want and anywhere they want, for whatever reason - it's a forum.


Not allegorical tax evaders then?

Interesting.
witchcraft = alchemy = making gold and silver from nothing...

This is more speculation and not just over-simplistic, but incorrect imo.

Will Scarlet said:
died with her

I can concede the point that counterfeit coin would be a problem around brothels. As would be 'the great mead bust', ergot, White Rabbit, weed, ect...can we agree they where heavily associated with the Black Market? Todays Smurf was yesterdays Sorcerer (source er)

I'm sorry, but I don't understand what any of this has to do with Bloody Mary whose death brought an end to the Inquisition in England? Or is this more allegory?
 

kd-755

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I don't. I'm just speculating, as these words are very similar.
I can speculate any time I want, and anywhere I want, for whatever reason.
If you are seething, please consider using the ignore button.
Asking questions of an apparent speculation is deemed, by some, to be a sign of anger or offence.
My god.
 
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